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Concrete Engineering

3d Printed Concrete

3D printed concrete is an emerging technology that has many advantages like reduced labour cost, less emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, reduced cost, less time consuming, ease of use, ability to change properties as per desire and many more. A case study on building houses using 3D printed concrete and conventional concrete brought into light that cost is effectively reduced using 3D printed concrete which is beneficial for people having low income or for refugees who have nowhere to go and construct houses affordably. Many types of 3D printing can be observed out of which the perfect method is selected based on various criteria. Some admixtures can also be added for better strength and workability that will facilitate ease of extrusion through the nozzle. Compaction or vibration is seen absent here as the process is completely automatic. However, some labours may be needed to move the 3D printed elements from one place to another. Other properties like bond strength, compressive strength and flexural strength are also taken into account for monitoring the effects of standoff distance as well as printing speed on tensile bond strength. Apart from this, some future projects are also expected that can produce homes on other planet and can open an array of opportunities.

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Mineral Admixtures

Mineral admixtures are not chemically generated and are sourced from other substances. Mineral admixtures include fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume. They have numerous roles in the concrete mix and improve the concrete’s varied qualities. As we all know, we seldom build anything without using concrete additives on the construction site in order to enhance the qualities. The usage of pozzolanic or mineral admixtures can be traced back to the early days of concrete construction. Mineral admixtures change the characteristics of both fresh and cured concrete. Mineral admixtures are sometimes known as concrete additives or extra cementing materials. They have a hydraulic or pozzolanic effect on the hardened concrete’s nature. Natural pozzolans (such as the volcanic ash used in Roman concrete), fly ash, and silica fumes are examples of cementitious materials. They can be used separately or in conjunction with Portland cement or mixed cement.
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The period developed when the mean day to day temperature falls below 40 C for more than three consecutive days is called cold weather and the concreting done in that period is referred to as cold weather concreting. However, special conditions are to be maintained when finishing, placing, curing, and protecting concrete from severe weather conditions. As during winter conditions can change abruptly, better planning in execution of the work is essential.

When concrete is in plastic state and it freezes, then strength reduces by 50% which in turn affects its durability and workability. Hence, it should be protected from freezing until it attains a minimum of 3.5 MPa.

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Self Compacting Concrete

Self compacting concrete is a type of concrete that needs no mechanical vibration or any external source for vibration for its compaction. It can be placed under its own weight and it is cohesive much to be handled without bleeding or segregation. However, the circumstances under which it is made should be free from any kind of noise or any kind of vibration that may damage or alter the property of such concrete. Such concrete is used specially in places where compacting is difficult. Hence it has been gaining traction since its discovery and is more used in important works to ensure structural performance and safety. It is widely used in various important project sites, drilled shafts, retaining systems, pipes, conduits, columns, floor finishing and many more.
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What are various Types of Admixtures?

Admixtures are added to the concrete mix to reduce water content, accelerate or decelerate the setting property, make concrete light and modify concrete properties. They are added immediately before or during the mixing of concrete. Excessive amount of water may lead to excessive bleeding and segregation that is why admixtures are added to control such constituents of concrete. This imbalance makes the concrete weak and the strength will also be affected. Many admixtures provide the combination of Superplasticizers, plasticizers or air entrainers. In laboratories, the admixtures are added during concrete preparation but in field not much time can be given on mixing and making concrete appropriate for using quickly. Hence, admixtures are added in cement clinkers formation and then transported to the site for ready to use.
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Factors Affecting Strength And Workability Of Concrete

Strength and workability are both dominating factors in the making of concrete. Strength can be increased by increasing cement content but this in fact reduces the workability. Moreover,the water content can be increased for better workability, but this affects the strength. Hence,a perfect balance is to be maintained for both strength and workability. Furthermore, besides cement and water content, some other factors contribute greatly, which will be discussed as follows.
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Methods of Concrete Mix Design For Medium Strength Concretes

The available mix design methods are mostly dependent on charts, graphs and empirical relations from repetitive experiments following the same principle with a little bit of variations in different mix methods. Some of the commonly known design methods are-
1. Trial and Adjustment method of mix design
2. British DoE mix design method
3. ACI mix design method
4. Concrete mix proportioning-IS Guidelines
5. Rapid method for mix design
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Translucent Concrete

Translucent concrete is a light transmitting concrete based building material. It works on the property of Nano-Optics. Its light transmitting is mainly due to uniform distribution of high numerical aperture Plastic Optic Fibres (POF) and hence it is also known as LiTraCon.It is produced by adding about 4% to 5% of optical fibres by volume in concrete mix. It was first mentioned in a Canadian Patent in the year 1935. As polymer based optical fibres and optical glass fibres were developed, it led to the increased rate of invention in this field.

Fig 1 Translucent Concrete building known as Lucem GmbH
Fig 1: Translucent Concrete building known as Lucem GmbH

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An Experimental Study of Human Hair in Concrete as Fibre Reinforcement

G. Ajaya Kumar O. Ganesh Kumar K. Damodar C. Jayasree Simpa Karmakar
Sai Ganapathi Engineering College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract— Since the ancient times, many researches and advancements were carried to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Fiber reinforced concrete is one among those advancements which offers a convenient, practical and economical method for overcoming micro cracks and similar type of deficiencies. Since concrete is weak in tension hence some measures must be adopted to overcome this deficiency. Human hair is generally strong in tension; hence it can be used as a fiber reinforcement material. Human hair Fiber is an alternative non-degradable matter available in abundance and at cheap cost. It also reduces environmental problems. Also addition of human hair fibers enhances the binding properties, micro cracking control, Imparts ductility and also increases swelling resistance. The experimental findings in our studies would encourage future research in the direction for long term performance to extending this cost of effective type of fibers for use in structural applications. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes, cylinders and beams of standard sizes with addition of various percentages of human hair fiber i.e., 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of cement, fine & coarse aggregate and results were compared with those of plain cement concrete of M-20 grade. For each percentage of human hair added in concrete, four cubes, three cylinders and three beams were tested for their respective mechanical properties at curing periods of 3 , 7 and 28 days. Optimum hair fiber content was obtained as 1.5% by weight of cement.

Keywords: Human Hair, Concrete, Fibre Reinforcement

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Effect on Compressive Strength of Concrete by Addition of Polypropylene Fiber in M20 Grade of Concrete

1. Gursharan Singh
2. Er Harish Kumar
3. Professor Geetinder Kaur
4. Professor jaspreet Singh
Department of Civil Engineering and Technology.
Guru Kashi University. Talwandi Sabo, Punjab, India

Abstract- The paper deals with the effects of addition of various proportions of polypropylene fiber on the properties of high strength concrete m20 mixes.An experimental program was carried out to explore its effects on compressive strength under different curing condition. the main aim of the investigation program is to study the effect of polypropylene fiber mix by varying content such as 0%,0.5%,1%,1.5%,2% and find the optimum polypropylene fiber content.the concrete specimen were tested at different age level for mechanical properties of concrete name compressive strength of the concrete .a detailed study was carried out of curing conditions.the increase were compressive strength

KEYWORDS-Ordinary portland cement,polypropylene fiber, different curing condition.

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