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The internal or external pressures on the pipe walls cause the stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension
The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is
p= internal pressure, lb/in2 (MPa)
D= outside diameter of pipe, in (mm)
F= force acting on each cut of edge of pipe, lb (N)
Hence, the stress, lb/in2 (MPa) on the pipe material is
A= area of cut edge of pipe, ft2 (m2)
t= thickness of pipe wall, in (mm).
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