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In the design of watermains, how to decide the usage of double air valves and single air valves?

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Single air valves allow squeezing air out of the pipeline in automatic mode in high-pressure condition and are normally designed in high points of watermain in which air voids are present. Double air valves basically serve the same purpose except that it has another important function: it can get air into/out of the pipeline during low-pressure condition.

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In WSD practice, watermain are normally divided into sections by installation of sectional valves to facilitate maintenance. In a single isolated pipeline section bounded by two sectional valves, at least a double air valve should be installed. During normal maintenance operation like cleansing of watermain, water inside pipelines is drawn from washout valves. However, as normal watermain is subject to very high pressure like 1.5MPa and the sudden withdrawn of water will cause a transient vacuum condition and will damage the watermain. Therefore at least one double air valve should be present to allow air to squeeze in to balance the pressure and this protects the pipeline from damaging.

In essence, for local high points single air valves should be installed. Within a section of pipeline, at least one double air valve should be installed.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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