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In driven piles, the allowable set is limited between 25mm and 50mm per 10 blows. Why?

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In final set table it is commonly to limit pile set between 25mm/10 blows and 50mm/10 blows. The reason of the provision for lower limit of set value of 25mm/10 blows is to avoid possible damage at pile toe owing to compressive stress reflected at the bottom of pile.

The upper limit of 50mm/10 blows is established principally to avoid very heavy hammer impacting at pile head so that the pile head may be damaged owing to excessive compressive stress. These limitations are believed to be applied originally to precast concrete piles.

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This question is taken from book named – A Closer Look at Prevailing Civil Engineering Practice – What, Why and How by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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