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What are the functions of cap block, drive cap and pile cushion in driven piles?

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Cap block is installed between the hammer end and the drive cap to control the hammer blow in order to protect both the hammer and the pile from damage. When the hammer hits the cap block, it compresses elastically and reduces the peak forces, thereby lengthening the time of hammer blow. Moreover, it should be capable of transmitting the hammer energy effectively to the piles.

Drive cap is inserted at hammer tip to enhance uniform distribution of hammer energy to the pile. Pile cushion is positioned between the drive cap and the pile top. It intends to protect the pile from driving stress induced during hammer blows. Moreover, it also serves to provide a uniform driving load on top of the pile.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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