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How to identify sand and clay from the results of Cone Penetration Testing?

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Cone Penetration Testing measures the pressure at the end of cone (end resistance), friction on sleeve and pore water pressure. Friction ratio is defined as the ratio of friction/end resistance.

For clay, typical CPT results exhibit low end resistance, high friction ratio and high pore water pressure.

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For sand, typical CPT results exhibit high end resistance, low friction ratio and low pore water pressure.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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