How to identify sand and clay from the results of Cone Penetration Testing?

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Cone Penetration Testing measures the pressure at the end of cone (end resistance), friction on sleeve and pore water pressure. Friction ratio is defined as the ratio of friction/end resistance.

For clay, typical CPT results exhibit low end resistance, high friction ratio and high pore water pressure.


For sand, typical CPT results exhibit high end resistance, low friction ratio and low pore water pressure.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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