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Why is spalling reinforcement needed for prestressing works in anchor blocks?

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Reinforcement of anchor blocks in prestressing works generally consists of bursting reinforcement, equilibrium reinforcement and spalling reinforcement. Bursting reinforcement is used where tensile stresses are induced during prestressing operation and the maximum bursting stress occurs where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of the load. Reinforcement is needed to resist these lateral tensile forces. For equilibrium reinforcement, it is required where there are several anchorages in which prestressing loads are applied sequentially.

During prestressing, spalling stresses are generated in the region behind the loaded faces of anchor blocks. At the zone between two anchorages, there is a volume of concrete surrounded by compressive stress trajectories. Forces are induced in the opposite direction to the applied forces and it forces the concrete out of the anchor block. On the other hand, the spalling stresses are set up owing to the strain compatibility relating to the effect of Poisson’s ratio.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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