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Why are residual stresses incurred in steel after welding?

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Considerable residual stresses are induced in connecting steel members after the welding operation. The local temperature of steel where welding takes place is higher than the remaining parts of the connecting steel members.

This causes thermal expansion locally during welding and the subsequent contraction after welding. Tensile stresses associated with the thermal contraction generated during the cooling process are balanced by compressive stresses in the remaining parts of connecting steel members.

As a result, residual stresses are induced during the welding operation.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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