Sand Filtration In KWA Community Of Cross Rivers State

Abaraogu, Udechukwu John and Dr. Ukpong, E. C.
Civil Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering University of Uyo, Nigeria.

In this work, the physical chemical and biological water treatment of raw and filter water through sand filtration in Kwa community of Cross River State, Nigeria were compared to the Nigeria and world Health organization standards. The mean results after the experiment showed that PH value for the filtered water is 6.6mg/l from 7.6mg/l when it was unfiltered, suspended solids droped from 12.29 (for raw water) to 7.7mg/l after filtration colour reduced from 12.22 TCU to 10143TUC after filtration Turbility was from 14.4NTU to 8.2NTU, dissolved oxygen from 4.0mg/l to 3.5mg/l ammonia from 0.32mg/l to 0.02mg/l, sodium from 30.5mg/l to 25.5mg/l, chloride from 12.1mg/l to 17.1mg/l, total dissolved solids (T.D.S) from 11.4mg/l to 25.76mg/l, the conductivity was from 18.06MS/Cm t0 42.16MS/Cm and the Total coliform count was from 0.043CFU/ML to 0.0217CFu/ML. These figures showed that the sand filtration was very good in treating the water to correspond with the Drinking water standard.

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Use of Plastic Bottle as Brick

Krishna G. Lodha

Everyday millions of people drinks water from packed plastic bottles and though it is expected that after consumption of water, bottle should be crushed and dropped in dustbin. But it is not in practise effectively. So instead of telling everyone to do so, a new method to use plastic bottles effectively is innovated.

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Comparative Analysis Of Water Quality From Hand Dug Wells And Bored Holes In Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Dr. Ukpong, E. C.
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of engineering, University of Uyo, Nigeria

Abaraogu, Udechukwu John
Civil Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering University of Uyo, Nigeria.

Water quality analysis was conducted using the physical, chemical and biological analysis methods of water treatment for samples randomly selected from three (3) boreholes and three (3) hand dug wells in Uyo metropolis to determine their suitability for drinking in comparison of the WHO standards for drinking water. After the analysis, one (1) of the boreholes was found to be slightly acidic (pH 6.3) while others were within limit of WHO standards. The mean D.O for borehole (4.161mgl/l) were less than that of wells and did not meet the WHO limit. (5-14mg/l). The BOD of all samples did not satisfy the WHO limit of 2-4mg/l. lead concentrations in bored holes were slightly above WHO limits of 0.01mg/l. the concentration of ions (Fe4, Ca2+ and mg2+), sulphate, and Nitrate fell within the WHO limit. From analysis, it will be concluded that the different water sources are good sources of drinking water.
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Investigation Of Borehole Water Around Slaughter Houses In Uyo, Akwa Ibom State Of Nigeria


This research was carried out to investigate the contaminant concentration in borehole water around slaughterhouse in Uyo metropolis on the fact that groundwater in the vicinity of slaughterhouse can be contaminated by leachates of slaughterhouse waster water. Water sample were collected at Itam, Iba Oku and the control bore holes of which is located at Nwaniba road about 5km from the slaughterhouses. These samples were subjected to laboratory analysis at Akwa Ibom Water Company central laboratory for different possible contaminants (physical, chemical or Biological) method. The results of test showed that pH ranged from 3.60-5.46, electrical conductivity ranges from 173.3-482µs/cm, turbidity varied from 0.18-1.93 NTU, colour was 5 ILU in all the samples. The temperature valuewere between 21.80C – 22.10c. The concentrations of iron and manganese varied from 0-0.07 mg/l, respectively. Lead, cadmium, zinc, from copper, chromium, aluminum, and selenium were not detected in any of the samples. Bacteriological test also revealed that E. coli was zero in all of the sample. This is an indication that there was no faecal pollution in any of the borehole waters. Total coliform count in all the samples were below permissible limits set by the World Health Organization, WHO and Nigeria standard for drinking Water Quality, NSDWQ, for drinking water. A comparison of the result showed that there was no significant difference between the control sample and the samples taken from the slaughterhouse. It is therefore concluded that the presence of animals at these slaughterhouse has no impact on the quality of the borehole water at these slaughterhouses. Therefore, it is it is recommended that these borehole water are safe for drinking, laundry and other uses.
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Advance Construction Material – Micro Silica In Concrete

Prof. Balasaheb E.Gite,Prof. Madhuri K. Rathi, Prof.Rajesh S.Rajguru, Prof. Asif P.Shaikh
Amrutvahini College of Engineering, Sangamner
University of Pune.

Micro silica is an amorphous type of silica dust mostly collected in bag house filters as by-product of the silicon and ferro-silicon production. The paper summarizes important physical and chemical properties of micro silica and uses those results for an evaluation of micro silica from a Health Safety and Environment (HSE) standpoint. Micro silica consists of spherical particles with an average particle size of 150 nm and a specific surface area of typically 20 m3/g. The chemical and physical properties of this inorganic product are different as compared to other amorphous and crystalline silica poly morphs. More than 500.000 MT of micro silica are sold to the building industry world-wide and are used in fibre cement, concrete, oil-well drilling, refractories, and even in polymers.

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