The GANGES CANAL

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

UPPER AND LOWER GANGES CANAL
The upper ganges canal is the original ganges canal, which starts at the Bhimgoda Barrage near Har Ki Puri at Haridwar, running at the centre of Roorkee, at right bank of canal is Roorkee city and at left bank is Civil Lines, IIT, Roorkee, Bengal Sappers and Minors, traverses Meerut and Bulandshahr and continues to Nanu in Aligarh district, where it bifurcates into the Kanpur and Etawah branches.

A channel from a barrage at Narora intersects the canal system 48 km downstream from Nanu, and continues past the sengar river and Sersa River past Shikohabad in Mainpuri district to become the Bhognipur branch which was uponed in 1880. This Bhognipur branch, together with the Kanpur and Etawah branches, is known as the lower ganges canal. The canal is administratively divided into the upper Ganges canal from Haridwar to Aligarh, with some branches, and the lower Ganges Canal which constitutes several branches below Aligarh.

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Dusting of Concrete Slab Surface

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

It is supposed that concrete should give satisfactory service to its entire life. However problems arises, if care is not taken during construction blemish appears on the surface of a concrete slab, it will likely to be one of these: bilisters, cracking, crazing, curling, delamination, discoloration. DUSTING, efflorescence, low spots, popouts, scaling or spelling. This paper will give the details about dusting.

DUSTING
Formation of loose powder resulting from disintegration of surface of hardened concrete is called dusting or chalking and this is composed of water, cement and fine particles. The concrete surface powder under any kind of traffic, and also surface can be easily scratched with nail or even by sweeping.
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Capping Concrete Specimens For Compression Testing

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

CAPPING THE CYLINDERS
It is required that the cylinders ends must be plane within 0.050 mm. The most common way of achieving this planeness requirement is to cap the ends of the cylinder as per ASTM C6176 with suitable materials. Three different capping materials are permitted (a) A thin layer of stiff Portland cement paste may be used on freshly molded specimens. (b) on hardened cylinders, either high-strength gypsum plaster or sulfur mortar may be used (c) A third method is, an elastomeric pad is placed within a metal retaining ring, and the assembly is then placed over the specimen end. The pad conforms to the shape of the cylinder end, but is prevented from spreading laterally by the metal retaining ring. This provides a uniform load across the specimen ends.

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ULTRASONIC TESTING OF CONCRETE

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Fundamental principle
A pulse of longitudinal vibrations is produced by an electro-acoustical transducer, which is held in contact with one surface of the concrete under test. When the pulse generated is transmitted into the concrete from the transducer using a liquid coupling material such as grease or cellulose paste, it undergoes multiple reflections at the boundaries of the different material phases within the concrete. A complex system of stress waves develops, which include both longitudinal and shear waves, and propagates through the concrete. The first waves to reach the receiving transducer are the longitudinal waves, which are converted into an electrical signal by a second transducer. Electronic timing circuits enable the transit time T of the pulse to be measured.

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Testing Concrete Cores

By
KAUSHAL KISHORE
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

The examination and compression testing of cores cut from hardened concrete is a well – established method, enabling visual inspection of the interior regions of a member to be coupled with strength estimation. Other properties which can be measured is also given in this paper.

IS: 456-2000 specified that the points from which cores are to be taken and the number of cores required shall be at the discretin of the engineer-in-charge and shall be representative of the whole of concrete concerned in no case, however, shall fewer than three cores be tested. Core shall be prepared and tested as described in IS: 516.

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