Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Fundamental principle
A pulse of longitudinal vibrations is produced by an electro-acoustical transducer, which is held in contact with one surface of the concrete under test. When the pulse generated is transmitted into the concrete from the transducer using a liquid coupling material such as grease or cellulose paste, it undergoes multiple reflections at the boundaries of the different material phases within the concrete. A complex system of stress waves develops, which include both longitudinal and shear waves, and propagates through the concrete. The first waves to reach the receiving transducer are the longitudinal waves, which are converted into an electrical signal by a second transducer. Electronic timing circuits enable the transit time T of the pulse to be measured.

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Testing Concrete Cores

Materials Engineer, Roorkee

The examination and compression testing of cores cut from hardened concrete is a well – established method, enabling visual inspection of the interior regions of a member to be coupled with strength estimation. Other properties which can be measured is also given in this paper.

IS: 456-2000 specified that the points from which cores are to be taken and the number of cores required shall be at the discretin of the engineer-in-charge and shall be representative of the whole of concrete concerned in no case, however, shall fewer than three cores be tested. Core shall be prepared and tested as described in IS: 516.

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Sand Filtration In KWA Community Of Cross Rivers State

Abaraogu, Udechukwu John and Dr. Ukpong, E. C.
Civil Engineering Department
Faculty of Engineering University of Uyo, Nigeria.

In this work, the physical chemical and biological water treatment of raw and filter water through sand filtration in Kwa community of Cross River State, Nigeria were compared to the Nigeria and world Health organization standards. The mean results after the experiment showed that PH value for the filtered water is 6.6mg/l from 7.6mg/l when it was unfiltered, suspended solids droped from 12.29 (for raw water) to 7.7mg/l after filtration colour reduced from 12.22 TCU to 10143TUC after filtration Turbility was from 14.4NTU to 8.2NTU, dissolved oxygen from 4.0mg/l to 3.5mg/l ammonia from 0.32mg/l to 0.02mg/l, sodium from 30.5mg/l to 25.5mg/l, chloride from 12.1mg/l to 17.1mg/l, total dissolved solids (T.D.S) from 11.4mg/l to 25.76mg/l, the conductivity was from 18.06MS/Cm t0 42.16MS/Cm and the Total coliform count was from 0.043CFU/ML to 0.0217CFu/ML. These figures showed that the sand filtration was very good in treating the water to correspond with the Drinking water standard.

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Use of Plastic Bottle as Brick

Krishna G. Lodha

Everyday millions of people drinks water from packed plastic bottles and though it is expected that after consumption of water, bottle should be crushed and dropped in dustbin. But it is not in practise effectively. So instead of telling everyone to do so, a new method to use plastic bottles effectively is innovated.

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Comparative Analysis Of Water Quality From Hand Dug Wells And Bored Holes In Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Dr. Ukpong, E. C.
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of engineering, University of Uyo, Nigeria

Abaraogu, Udechukwu John
Civil Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering University of Uyo, Nigeria.

Water quality analysis was conducted using the physical, chemical and biological analysis methods of water treatment for samples randomly selected from three (3) boreholes and three (3) hand dug wells in Uyo metropolis to determine their suitability for drinking in comparison of the WHO standards for drinking water. After the analysis, one (1) of the boreholes was found to be slightly acidic (pH 6.3) while others were within limit of WHO standards. The mean D.O for borehole (4.161mgl/l) were less than that of wells and did not meet the WHO limit. (5-14mg/l). The BOD of all samples did not satisfy the WHO limit of 2-4mg/l. lead concentrations in bored holes were slightly above WHO limits of 0.01mg/l. the concentration of ions (Fe4, Ca2+ and mg2+), sulphate, and Nitrate fell within the WHO limit. From analysis, it will be concluded that the different water sources are good sources of drinking water.
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