When railway tunnels are built close to buildings, ground-borne vibration is transmitted to the building by means of compression and shear waves.
When structural members (e.g. wall) of a building have natural frequencies similar to the frequency at the source, the response of the structures would be magnified. This effect is even more significant when the building is designed with small number of movement joints. Consequently, the vibration can be felt inside the building and noise associated with such vibration is produced. To avoid this, vibration isolation can be implemented, sometimes by providing resilient bearings at column heads in buildings.
This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.