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For proper compaction of concrete by immersion vibrators, the vibrating part of the vibrators should be completely inserted into the concrete. The action of compaction is enhanced by providing a sufficient head of concrete above the vibrating part of the vibrators. This serves to push down and subject the fresh concrete to confinement within the zone of vibrating action.
Over vibration should normally be avoided during the compaction of concrete. If the concrete mix is designed with low workability, over vibration simply consumes extra power of the vibration, resulting in the wastage of energy. For most of concrete mixes, over-vibration creates the problem of segregation in which the denser aggregates settle to the bottom while the lighter cement paste tends to move upwards. If the concrete structure is cast by successive lifts of concrete pour, the upper weaker layer (or laitance) caused by segregation forms the potential plane of weakness leading to possible failure of the concrete structure during operation. If concrete is placed in a single lift for road works, the resistance to abrasion is poor for the laitance surface of the carriageway. This becomes a critical problem to concrete carriageway where its surface is constantly subject to tearing and traction forces exerted by vehicular traffic.