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What are the differences in function between rock anchors and rock sockets?

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Rock anchors are used primarily for resisting uplift forces. On the contrary, rock sockets serve three main purposes:

(i) Rock socket friction and end bearing to resist vertical load.

(ii) Passive resistance of rock sockets contribute to resistance of lateral load.

(iii) Socket shaft friction is also used for resisting uplifting forces. But only 70% of this capacity should be used because of the effect of negative Poisson ratio.

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Note: Rock anchors, which may consist of a high tensile bar or a stranded cable, are provided for tension piles when there are insufficient soil covers to develop the required uplifting resistance.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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