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# Student Corner

What are the Tolerance Limits on Construction Site?

Accuracy of measuring equipment in batching plant.
Cement : + – 2%
Aggregate : + – 3%
Admixture : + – 3%
Water : + – 3%
Mixing time : 2 minutes for one mixing. (Mixing which is being done on site)

Tolerance in Form work
In C/S for columns & Beams deviation is = + 12mm more (or) – 6mm less in size
In footing plan = + 50 mm more (or) – 12 mm less size
In depth = + – 0.05 D (specified thickness).

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Tolerance in Reinforcement
For effective depth D < = 200mm = +- 10mm For effective depth D > 200mm = +- 15mm
For Cover to reinforcement = + 10mm
Maximum freefall of concrete = 1.50 m height.

Tolerance on diameter in length
0-25mm = +- 0.5 %
25-35mm = +- 0.6 %
35-50mm = +- 0.8 %

Tolerance on weight per metre
0-10mm = +- 7%
10-16mm = +- 5%
16 and above = +- 3%

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Tolerance for cutting Length
A) When the specified length is not given = + 75mm (or) – 25 mm
B) When the minimum length is specified = + 50 mm (or) – 0 mm

We are thankful to Er. Vikrant for submitting this to us.

Unit Weight of Materials Used at Construction Site

Following table shows unit weight of materials used at construction site. Please note this is for reference purpose only and may vary from place and type of material.

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We are thankful to Engineer Ravi Verma for submitting this very useful information to us. If you also have any other formula and shortcuts which can be used on construction site do submit it to us using the submit form here

 S.No Material Theoretical Weight in(KG/M³) Approx Weight at Site in Remarks Kg Per 1 Cement 1440 50 Bag 2 Steel 7850 d²/162 d -dia in mm 3 Sand- Dry 1600 50 to 55 farma 1 farma=1.25cft River 1840 57 to 63 farma 1 farma=1.25cft 4 Stone(basalt) 2850 to 2960 48 to 52 farma metal 12mm to 20mm 5 Water 1000 1 liter 6 PCC 2240 8.24 to 8.5 Cube mould cube mould size=15x15x15cm 7 RCC 2% Steel 2420 8 Bricks 1600 to 1920 1.9 to 2 no 9x4x2 3/4″ 4.8 to 4.9 no 9x6x3 3/4” 9 Brick Masonry 1920 10 Soil(damp) 1760 50 to 55 cft Black cotton 11 Cement concrete block(solid) 1800 18 to 20 cft 30x15x20 cm 10 to 11 no 30x10x20 cm 12 Cement Mortar 2080 57 to 62 cft 13 Lime Mortar 1760 48 to 52 cft 14 Lime 640 30 bag 15 Glass 2530 0.9 to 0.95 sft 4mm tk plain 16 Teak Wood 670 to 830 18 to 20 cft 17 Sal Wood 990 22 to 24 cft 18 Marble mosaic tile 2.8 to 3.2 no 25x25x22mm 4.8 to 5.2 no 30x30x25mm 19 Chequered tile 2.5 to 2.8 no 25x25x22mm 20 Glazed tile15x15cm 0.20 to 0.25 no 5mm tk 21 Marble Stone 2620 5.1 sft 3/4″tk 22 Granite Stone 2460-2800 5.35 sft 3/4″tk 23 Coddappa 2720 6.4 sft 1 1/4″tk 24 A.C.sheet corrugated 16 1.2 sft 25 Bitumen 1040 220 Drum 200liter drum 26 Window frame (simple design) 1.9 to2.1 sft 27 Door Frame a)3’00×7’0 25 to 27 no section 4″x2 1/2″ b)2’6″x7’0 24 to 26 no section 4″x2 1/2″

How To Write a Project Report?

All engineers need to submit at least one Project Report in four years of engineering. Usually it is done during a training semester but in many prestigious colleges and universities, students are asked to prepare project reports in almost every semester. Writing a report is considered to be a very difficult task, if the student is doing it for the first time. But once you have done it, it becomes an extremely easy and interesting job. We at engineeringcivil.com have received many requests to prepare a format for writing an effective project report for engineering students be it BE, B Tech, M Tech or PHD. First of all you need to understand different levels of Project Reports. If two students one of B Tech and one of M Tech will have to write on same topic, then M Tech students need to do a much more thorough research before preparing a Project Report. But the basic structure remains the same.

Here is the overview of How to write an effective Project Report

1) Title Page
The first page of your report should cover the title of your project along with your name, your guide’s name and your institute’s name along with a line saying “IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (B.TECH) IN CIVIL ENGINEERING”, (change CIVIL to your engineering branch). Also note if its just a regular report and not a training report you need not write this statement. This is only used when you are submitting your report after a training semester.Here is a sample of Title Page
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Format of a Training Completion Certificate

This post by Er Rohit Verma is to to help all other budding civil engineering students about the format of a training completion certificate.

Since he dint know the format earlier, he thought about sharing it so that others who are not aware of what is the format of a training certificate can get help out of this.

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Hope it helps you,note that this Certificate must be written on a company’s letter head ,and signed by a reputed officer of the firm

INTERNSHIP CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that ________________ [ your name], pursuing his B.Tech, 3rd/4th year [depending on when you go for training] has successfully completed summer internship at________________________ [ Project Location] from _____________ to ____________ [ date of your internship/training]

We found him /her sincere, hardworking, technically sound and result oriented. He worked well as part of a team during his/her tenure. We take this opportunity to thank him and wish him all the best for her future.

Name:
Designation:
Place:
Date:
Office Stamp: