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Tests Conducted To Check Quality Of Concrete

Test conducted on site for quality control

Slump test
This is a site test to determine the workability of the ready mixed concrete just before its placing to final position inside the formwork, and is always conducted by the supervisor on site. However in mid of concreting process , should the site supervisor visually finds that the green concrete becomes dry or the placement of concrete has been interrupted , a re-test on the remaining concrete should be conducted in particular of the pour for congested reinforcement area . The procedure of test in brief is as follows: –

1. Ensure the standard Slump Cone and associated equipment are clean before test and free from hardened concrete.
2. Wet the Slump Cone and drain away the superfluous water.
3. Request the mixer or concrete truck to well mix the concrete for additional 5 minutes.
4. Place the Slump Cone on one side ( i.e. not in middle ) of the base plate on leveled ground and stand with feet on the foot-pieces of cone .
5. Using a scoop and fill the cone with sampled concrete in 3 equal layers, each of about 100mm thick.
6. Compact each layer of concrete in turn exactly 25 times with a Slump Rod, allowing the rod just passes into the underlying layer.
7. While tamping the top layer, top up the cone with a slight surcharge of concrete after the tamping operation.
8. Level the top by a “sawing and rolling” motion of the Slump Rod across the cone.
9. With feet are still firmly on the foot-pieces, wipe the cone and base plate clean and remove any leaked concrete from bottom edge of the Slump Cone.
10. Leave the foot-pieces and lift the cone carefully in a vertical up motion in a few seconds time.


11. Invert the cone on other side and next to the mound of concrete.
12. Lay the Slump Rod across the inverted cone such that it passes above the slumped concrete at its highest point.
13. Measure the distance between the underside of rod and the highest point of concrete to the nearest 5mm.
14. This reading is the amount that the sampled concrete has slumped.
15. If the concrete does not show an acceptable slump, repeat the test with another sample.
16. If the repeated test still does not show an acceptable slump, record this fact in the report, or reject that load of concrete.

Compression test
The Compression Test is a laboratory test to determine the characteristic strength of the concrete but the making of test cubes is sometimes carried out by the supervisor on site. This cube test result is very important to the acceptance of insitu concrete work since it demonstrates the strength of the design mix.
The procedure of making the test cubes is as follows: –

1. 150 mm standard cube mold is to be used for concrete mix and 100 mm standard cube mold is to be used for grout mix.
2. Arrange adequate numbers of required cube molds to site in respect with the sampling sequence for the proposed pour.
3. Make sure the apparatus and associated equipment ( see Fig 7 – 6 ) are clean before test and free from hardened concrete and superfluous water .
4. Assemble the cube mold correctly and ensure all nuts are tightened.
5. Apply a light coat of proprietary mold oil on the internal faces of the mold.
6. Place the mold on level firm ground and fill with sampled concrete to a layer of about 50 mm thick.
7. Compact the layer of concrete thoroughly by tamping the whole surface area with the Standard Tamping Bar. (Note that no less than 35 tamps / layer for 150 mm mold and no less than 25 tamps / layer for 100 mm mold).
8. Repeat Steps 5 & 6 until the mold is all filled. (Note that 3 layers to be proceeded for 150 mm mold and 2 layers for 100 mm mold).
9. Remove the surplus concrete after the mold is fully filled and trowel the top surface flush with the mold.
10. Mark the cube surface with an identification number (say simply 1, 2, 3, etc) with a nail or match stick and record these numbers in respect with the concrete truck and location of pour where the sampled concrete is obtained.


11. Cover the cube surface with a piece of damp cloth or polythene sheeting and keep the cube in a place free from vibration for about 24 hours to allow initial set .
12. Strip off the mold pieces in about 24 hours after the respective pour is cast. Press the concrete surface with the thumb to see any denting to ensure the concrete is sufficiently hardened, or otherwise de-molding has to be delayed for one more day and this occurrence should be stated clearly in the Test Report.
13. Mark the test cube a reference number with waterproof felt pen on the molded side, in respect with the previous identification number.
14. Place the cube and submerge in a clean water bath or preferably a thermostatically controlled curing tank until it is delivered to the accredited laboratory for testing.

Checking Quality of Fine Aggregates and Bricks
For checking the quality of fine aggregates, a field test was conducted in which the sand was placed in a flask containing water. The sand was allowed to settle for some time and then after few hours the reading of the silt or other impurity layer is takenIf that reading is less than 5% of the total sand that is put in the flask, then we accept the sand but if it is more than 5% the sand is rejected. Bricks were sent to the college laboratory for testing and thereby checking the quality of the bricks used at site.

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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112 comments on "Tests Conducted To Check Quality Of Concrete"

Abdulameer awad --SITE ENGINEER says:


Amarendra Joshi says:

90 cubes

k.madheswaran says:

1/5m3 2/6-15m3 3/16-25 4/26-35 5/35-50

K.Maheswara Reddy says:

Sir,i need all concrete lab tests procedure,

Dr. L.K.Mishra says:

Dear Mr. Reddy
You may refer to BIS publications on various tests required on concrete and concrete making materials. Tests on Concrete are primarily on fresh concrete and hardened Concrete. Tests on concrete making materials include tests on as Cement , Aggregates and Admixtures. The tests relating to durability are generally not well standardized. BIS gives details for conducting destructive/partially destructive and non- destructive tests on hardened concrete. Further ASTM standards may also be referred.

Sachin Patil says:

What is the percentage required for 7 days test rsult as per IS standard?

Atul D Gautam says:

For What ? Cement or Concrete or something different ?

Alexander says:

How many number of cubes required for 2000m3 of concrete placed in one day as per BS or ASTM

Tameem Ghori says:

Dear Mr.Alexander every 110 m3, 1 set (3 +3+3) of cubes required as per BS EN 12350-1 and BS EN 12390-2

AYEGBO K.S says:

Pls,I need all Civil Engrg lab.test to be sent to my e-mail.

cedric mdokwe says:

How do you interprete the CBR results? For instance you get a cbr reading of 41, what does that convert to kPa? How do you convert the DCP (Dynamic cone penentration) reading directly to compaction density? I want to know the relation, say a blow sinks 50 mm then what will be the percentage compaction be?

Satyapriya Nayak says:

I heard that in concrete we should only check the Flakiness test and there is no need to test Elongation. Is this correct? If yes then what is the reference BIS code for this? Please note that I have been see IS-2386(part-1),SP-23. But no where this is mentioned that we should only check the Flakiness test but in SP-23 only given the limit of FI only. And this is a indication of the matter. But not clearly. Please suggest.

Satyapriya Nayak says:

What should be the slump at pump when we pour a running slab and the same for we pour the retaining wall, column, pillar. Please suggest the reference code also.

sreedhara.r says:

What is the minimum qty of concreting for taking cube sampling. For example if 1 CuM of concrete is placed do we need to take a cube sample?

Mohamed hussein says:

1)For concrete preparation of every 100panels and not exceeding 100cum with same mix ratio ,take samples not less than one time.
2)For concrete prepared less than 100panels with same mix ratio for each work shift,take sample not less than one time
3)For continuous casting at one time exceeding 1000cum,every 200cum concrete with same mix ratio shall be taken sample not less than one time
4)For concrete with same mix ratio for each floor, take sample not less than one time

John Nwakor says:

Good day Sir,please i want to know about crushing test and what is the standard crushing strength for 7days, 14days and 28days concrete. thank you

Tameem Ghori says:

Good Day to you John, Its depend what is the Grade of Concrete.

Selvam.N says:

i need the formulae for the concrete cube test.

S Ganju says:

can we conduct cube crushing test of concrete after 3 day, if yes ,please tell the procedure

shahzad Afzal says:

Dear, may i know that prior to pouring of concrete at job site, is it unnecessary to wait for 28-days test result for trial batch of 8000PSI. If yes please give me a reference of any authentic book with code thanks.

faith says:

what to tell on a conclusion of a cubetest

Pramod Chawada says:

Slump value depends on type of work and atmospheric condition,though on an average considering workability of concrete we can take as Min. value 60 mm and Max. value as 100 mm.

Maher Mansour Hamza says:

plees send me the method of testing the cubic and how to calculat the C.S.

Tameem Ghori says:

Sir,i need all concrete lab tests procedure,

Tameem Ghori says:

can i hav the general method of statement of concrete

arvind kumar sonkar says:

which type test we have to take to test the concrete quality while corete already done & no any cube available….?

Tameem Ghori says:

Rebonding Hammer test if the we did not get good result in rebonding hammer test go for core cutting test then compressive strength and water absorbtion test will be carried out.

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