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Physical Properties Of Soils

The soil properties and parameters can be broadly classified as

Physical soil properties include specific gravity, density, particle size and distribution and water content.
The water content represented by w of a soil sample is defined as the weight of free water in the sample expressed as a percentage of its dry weight.

The degree of saturation S is defined as the ratio of the volume of free water to its total volume of voids Vv

where n is the Porosity defined as the ratio of void volume to the total volume V of soil.

We need to calculate the value of e which is the void ratio to calculate degree of saturation. Once we know the value of e we can find S
where Gs – specific gravity of the soil particles and is usually in range of 2.67+ -0.05

The dry unit weight Yd(pronounced as gamma) of a soil specimen with any degree of saturation is calculated using the following formula


where w =unit weight of water having following values
Freshwater – 62.4 lb/ft3 or 1001 kg/m3
Seawater – 64.0 lb/ft31026.7 kg/m3

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Kanwarjot Singh

Kanwarjot Singh is the founder of Civil Engineering Portal, a leading civil engineering website which has been awarded as the best online publication by CIDC. He did his BE civil from Thapar University, Patiala and has been working on this website with his team of Civil Engineers.

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5 comments on "Physical Properties Of Soils"

senthilkumar says:

for me physical properties of soil much vailed since i am road engr

silty content test of sand says:

i reqiured the procedure of silt content test of sand

engr junde alesna says:

thank for this , very useful

jitender kumar mishra says:

what is soil enginering and soil mechanics.

ansari says:

for G+12 ,Residential Tower , Soil S.B.C. is 08 tom/sqm,for design witch type foundation best Pile/ Raft

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