Physical Properties Of Soils

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The soil properties and parameters can be broadly classified as

Physical soil properties include specific gravity, density, particle size and distribution and water content.
The water content represented by w of a soil sample is defined as the weight of free water in the sample expressed as a percentage of its dry weight.

The degree of saturation S is defined as the ratio of the volume of free water to its total volume of voids Vv

where n is the Porosity defined as the ratio of void volume to the total volume V of soil.

We need to calculate the value of e which is the void ratio to calculate degree of saturation. Once we know the value of e we can find S
where Gs – specific gravity of the soil particles and is usually in range of 2.67+ -0.05

The dry unit weight Yd(pronounced as gamma) of a soil specimen with any degree of saturation is calculated using the following formula


where w =unit weight of water having following values
Freshwater – 62.4 lb/ft3 or 1001 kg/m3
Seawater – 64.0 lb/ft31026.7 kg/m3

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  • senthilkumar March 19, 2008 at 10:37 am

    for me physical properties of soil much vailed since i am road engr

  • silty content test of sand March 13, 2010 at 12:31 am

    i reqiured the procedure of silt content test of sand

  • engr junde alesna March 31, 2011 at 11:42 pm

    thank for this , very useful

  • jitender kumar mishra September 3, 2011 at 9:10 am

    what is soil enginering and soil mechanics.

  • ansari July 13, 2012 at 1:59 am

    for G+12 ,Residential Tower , Soil S.B.C. is 08 tom/sqm,for design witch type foundation best Pile/ Raft

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