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Other than liquefaction, what are the possible causes of failure of loose fill slopes?

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Other than static liquefaction, slow-moving slips driven by transient pore water pressure leading to high speed landslide are the other possible cause of failure of loose fill slopes.

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For loose fill lying on low permeability soil layers, there is potential storage of infiltrating water when the slope of underlying low-permeability soil layer is mild. As such, there is a localized zone of high transient pore water pressure induced within the fill material. Flowslides normally start with a local slip caused by transient pore water pressure by soil layering or flow restriction. Then, the nature of slow-moving soil debris and the geometry of slip result in a fast landslide.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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