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How to estimate the earth pressure on abutment?

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The magnitude of earth pressure coefficient in calculating the earth pressure on bridge abutment depends significantly on the degree of restraint provided by the abutment. For example, active earth pressure is usually adopted for cantilever abutment because there is possible occurrence of small relieving movements.

However, for abutment founded on piles, the at-rest earth pressure can be assumed in assessing the earth pressure as the abutment is considered to be rigidly supported by piles and is fully restrained against lateral movement.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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