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Mix Design For Concrete Roads As Per IRC:15-2011

By
Kaushal Kishore, Materials Engineer, Roorkee

ABSTRACT:
The stresses induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural. Therefore flexural strength is more often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement construction. A simple method of concrete mix design based on flexural strength for normal weight concrete mixes is described in the paper.

INTRODUCTION:
Usual criterion for the strength of concrete in the building industry is the compressive strength, which is considered as a measure of quality concrete. However, in pavement constructions, such as highway and airport runway, the flexural strength of concrete is considered more important, as the stresses induced in concrete pavements are mainly flexural. Therefore, flexural strength is more often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement construction. It is not perfectly reliable to predict flexural strength from compressive strength. Further, various codes of the world specified that the paving concrete mixes should preferably be designed in the laboratory and controlled in the field on the basis of its flexural strength. Therefore, there is a need to design concrete mixes based on flexural strength.
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Non-destructive Testing Of Concrete By Rebound Hammer

By
Kaushal Kishore
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

INTRODUCTION
The standard method of determining strength of hardened concrete consists of testing concrete cubes in compression. The quality of entire concrete of a structure cannot be fully assessed by testing a few concrete cubes. The results obtained in testing cubes do not always reflect the actual strength of concrete in construction. In a whole day, concreting work cubes are cast in a few batches, the differences (unintentional and intentional) in the composition are not uncommon, their compaction and their hardening conditions always differ more or less from those of the structure. In addition, the number of test cubes is generally so small that they can only be considered as random tests. Some times, in case of failure of cubes, doubtful concrete, cracks, deterioration of concrete, etc. it becomes necessary to assess the quality and strength of concrete of the structure. As far back as early thirties, the necessity was felt to develop instruments by which in-situ strength of concrete may be obtained. Various non-destructive methods of testing concrete have been developed, which include, Firing method, Skramtayev’s method, Polakov’s method, Magnitostroy method, Fizdel ball hammer, Einbeck pendulum hammer, Ball indentation hammer, Rebound hammer, Pull out techniques, Windsor probe, Ultrasonic pulse velocity methods, Radioactive and nuclear methods, Magnetic and electrical methods. In all these methods of tests, due to simplicity, rebound hammer test based on surface hardness becomes most popular in the world for non-destructive testing of in-situ concrete.

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Foamed Cellular Light Weight Concrete

By
Kaushal Kishore, Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Foamed concrete, also called cellular light weight concrete is produced by the mixing of Portland cement, sand including or alone fly ash, water and preformed stable foam. The foam is produced with the help of a foam generator by using foaming agent. The air content is typically between 40 to 80 percent of the total volume. The bubbles vary in size from around 0.1 to 1.5 mm in diameter. Foamed concrete differentiates from (a) gas or aerated concrete, where the bubbles are chemically formed through the reaction of aluminium powder with calcium hydro oxide and other alkalies released by cement hydration and (b) air entrained concrete, which has a much lower volume of entrained air is used in concrete for durability. Curing of foamed concrete unit may be done as per IS: 456-2000. Curing can be speeded up by steam.
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Understanding Nominal and Design Mixes

By
Kaushal Kishore
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Cement concrete in India on large scale is being used since the last about 70 years. In the early days the following nominal ratio by volume for concrete were specified.

Cement

:

Sand

:

Aggregate

1

:

2

:

4

Correspond to M-15 Grade

1

:

1.5

:

3

Correspond to M-20 Grade

1

:

1

:

2

Correspond to M-25 Grade

IS : 456-2000 has recommended that minimum grade of concrete shall be not less than M-20 in reinforced concrete work. Design mix concrete is preferred to nominal mix. If design mix concrete cannot be used for any reason on the work for grades of M-20 or lower, nominal mixes may be used with the permission of engineer-in-charge, which however is likely to involve a higher cement content.
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Visual Inspection of Concrete Structure

By
Kaushal Kishore
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Visual inspection is one of the most versatile and powerful of the NDT methods, and it is typically one of the first steps in the evaluation of a concrete structure. Visual inspection can provide a wealth of information that may lead to positive identification of the cause of observed distress. However, its effectiveness depends on the knowledge and experience of the investigator. Broad knowledge in structural engineering, concrete materials, and construction methods is needed to extract the most information from visual inspection.

Before performing a detailed visual inspection, the investigator should develop and follow a definite plan to maximize the quality of the record data. Visual inspection has the obvious limitation that only visible surface can be inspected. Internal defects go unnoticed and no quantitative information is obtained about the properties of the concrete. For these reasons, a visual inspection is usually supplemented by one or more of the other NDT methods, such as by concrete test hammer, ultrasonic concrete tester and partial destructive testing by drilling cores and testing them for compressive strength.
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