# Project on Partial Replacement of Cement with Marble Powder

Posted in Project Reports | Email This Post |Advance concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources thereby lessen the burden of pollutants on environment. We describes the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement.

*Presented by Rahul ,Jamsheed, Shanil , Geo, and Jagdeesh, under the guidance of Miss; DIVYA RAJAN guidance towards the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering, of the university of Calicut during the year 2011.*

**ABSTRACT**

Leaving the waste materials to the environment directly can cause environmental problem. Hence the reuse of waste material has been emphasized. Waste can be used to produce new products or can be used as admixtures so that natural resources are used more efficiently and the environment is protected from waste deposits. Marble stone industry generates both solid waste and stone slurry. Whereas solid waste results from the rejects at the mine sites or at the processing units, stone slurry is a semi liquid substance consisting of particles originating from the sawing and the polishing processes and water used to cool and lubricate the sawing and polishing machines. Stone slurry generated during processing corresponds to around 40% of the final product from stone industry. This is relevant because the stone industry presents an annual output of 68 million tonnes of processed products. Therefore the scientific and industrial community must commit towards more sustainable practices. There are several reuse and recycling solutions for this industrial by-product, both at an experimental phase and in practical applications. These industrial wastes are dumped in the nearby land and the natural fertility of the soil is spoiled. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the waste are analyzed.

**(1.1) INTRODUCTION**

**INFLUENCE OF MARBLE DUST AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT IN CONCRETE**

The advancement of concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources and lessen the burden of pollutants on environment. Presently large amounts of marble dust are generated in natural stone processing plants with an important impact on environment and humans. This project describes the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement. In INDIA, the marble and granite stone processing is one of the most thriving industry the effects if varying marble dust contents on the physical and mechanical properties of fresh and hardened concrete have been investigated. Slump and air content of fresh concrete and absorption and compressive strength of hardened concrete were also investigated. Test results show that this industrial bi product is capable of improving hardened concrete performance up to 10%,Enhancing fresh concrete behaviour and can be used in architectural concrete mixtures containing white cement. The compressive strength of concrete was measured for 7 and 28 days. In order to evaluate the effects of marble dust on mechanical behaviour, many different mortar mixes were tested.

**(1.2)OBJECTIVES;**

In this project our main objective is to study the influence of partial replacement of cement with marble powder , and to compare it with the compressive and tensile strength of ordinary M20 concrete. We are also trying to find the percentage of marble powder replaced in concrete that makes the strength of the concrete maximum.

Nowadays marble powder has become a pollutant. So , by partially replacing cement with marble powder, we are proposing a method that can be of great use in reducing pollution to a great extent.

**(2) TESTING ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS**

(2.1) INITIAL SETTING TIME = 84 minutes

(2.2) FINENESS MODULUS = 6%

(2.3)SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT (LE – CHATLIER FLASK)

Weight of cement used = 60 gm

Initial reading on flask = 0 ml

Final reading on flask = 23 ml

Specific gravity of cement = weight of cement used

Weight of equal volume of water

Specific gravity of cement = 2.608

(2.4)SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FINE AGGREGATE-

(A)SAND-

SL NO | Determination | gm | Gm |

1 | Pycnometer (M1) | 458.10 | 451 |

2 | Pycnometer + sand (half of bottle)(M2) | 676 | 697 |

3 | Pycnometer+ sand + full of water (M3) | 1390 | 1405 |

4 | Pycnometer + full of water (M4) | 1253 | 1258 |

**CALCULATIONS;-**

Specific gravity = [(M2-M1)]/[(M2-M1)-(M3-M4)]

a). (676-458.10)/ [(676-458.10)-(1390-1253)] = 2.693

b) (697-451)/ [(697-451)-(1405-1258)] = 2.49

Therefore, specific gravity of fine aggregate = 2.59

(2.5)SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF COARSE AGGREGATE

SL NO | DETERMINATION | gm | Gm |

1 | Pycnometer (M1) | 458 | 463 |

2 | Pycnometer + aggregate(M2) | 706 | 666 |

3 | Pycnometer+ aggregate +water(M3) | 1405 | 1385 |

4 | Pycnometer+ water (M4) | 1258 | 1253 |

CALCULATIONS

Specific gravity = (M2-M1)/[(M2-M1)-(M3-M4)]

(a) (706-458)/ [(706-458)-(1405-1258) ] = 2.45

(b) (666-463) /[(706-458)-(1405-1258) ]= 2.859

Mean of these = 2.66

Therefore, specific gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.66

(2.6)SIEVE ANALYSIS

(A) SAND

Quantity of sand = 1 Kg

Time of sieving = 15 minutes

SL NO | SIEVE SIZE | WEIGHT RETAINED | %OF WEIGHT RETAINED | CUMULATIVE % RETAINED | CUMULATIVE % PASSING |

1 | 40mm | 0 | 0 | 0 | 100 |

2 | 20mm | 0 | 0 | 0 | 100 |

3 | 10mm | 0 | 0 | 0 | 100 |

4 | 4.75 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 100 |

5 | 2.36 | 98 | 9.8 | 9.8 | 90.2 |

6 | 1.18 | 60 | 6 | 15.8 | 84.2 |

7 | 600micron | 188 | 18.8 | 34.6 | 65.4 |

8 | 300micron | 397 | 39.7 | 74.3 | 25.7 |

9 | 150micron | 221 | 22.1 | 96.4 | 3.6 |

10 | 90micron | 21.5 | 2.15 | 98.5 | 1.45 |

11 | L.P | 19.5 | 1.95 | 100 | 0 |

Fineness modulus = 329.4 / 100 = 3.29%

(2.7)(B)COARSE AGGREGATE

Quantity of materials = 4 kg

Time of sieving = 15 minutes

SL NO | Sieve size | Weight retained(gm) | %weight retained | Cumulative % weight retained | Cumulative %weight passing |

1 | 40mm | 0 | 0 | 0 | 100 |

2 | 20mm | 585.0 | 14.625 | 14.65 | 85.375 |

3 | 10mm | 3260 | 81.5 | 96.12 | 3.88 |

4 | 4.75mm | 155 | 3.875 | 100 | 0 |

5 | 2.40mm | 0 | 0 | 100 | 0 |

6 | 1.18mm | 0 | 0 | 100 | 0 |

7 | 600m | 0 | 0 | 100 | 0 |

8 | 300m | 0 | 0 | 100 | 0 |

9 | 150m | 0 | 0 | 100 | 0 |

710.77 |

Fineness modulus = 710.77/100 = 7.10%

**(3) MIX DESIGN:**

Mix design for concrete was made using the properties of constituents of concrete. Grade of concrete was taken as M20 and the mix design was done as per IS:10262-1982 and IS:456-2000. The water cement ratio was taken as 0.5 which should be the maximum for M20 grade under mild exposure condition.

**MIX DESIGN OF M 20**

(3.1) DESIGN STIPULATIONS

SL NO | DESIGN STIPULATIONS | QUANTITY |

1 | Characteristic compressive strength required in the field at 28 days | 20N/mm^{2} |

2 | Maximum size of aggregates | 20mm(angular) |

3 | Degree of workability | 0.90 (compacting factor) |

4 | Degree of quality of control | Good |

5 | Type of exposure | Mild |

(3.2) TEST DATA FOR MATERIAL

SL NO | TEST DATA FOR MATERIAL | QUANTITY |

1 | Cement used | Portland slag cement |

2 | Specific gravity of cement | 2.608 |

3 | Specific gravity of fine aggregate | 2.59 |

4 | Specific gravity of coarse aggregate | 2.66 |

5 | Water absorption of fine aggregate | Nil |

6 | Water absorption of coarse aggregate | Nil |

7 | Free moisture of fine aggregate | Nil |

8 | Free moisture of coarse aggregate | Nil |

9 | Sieve analysis of fine aggregate | Grade 3 |

TARGET MEAN STRENGTH FOR MIX DESIGN

f_{ck} =f_{ck} +1.65s

f_{ck} =20+1.65×4.6

= 27.59N/mm2

As per IS;10262-1982,

Water cement ratio = 0.5

From table 4

Water content = 186 kg/m3

Sand content = 35%

For change in value of water cement ratio, compacting factor and sand belonging to Zone 3 ,the following adjustment is required.

**Change in condition**

1) For decrease in water cement ratio by (0.60-0.50)that is 0.1

Adjustments required in Water content percent = 0

Adjustments required in percentage sand in total aggregate = -2.0

2) For increase in compacting factor (0.9-0.8)that is 0.10

Adjustments required in Water content percent = +3

Adjustments required in percentage sand in total aggregate = 0

3) For sand conforming to zone III of table 4 Of IS ;383-1970

Adjustments required in Water content percent = 0

Adjustments required in percentage sand in total aggregate = -1.5

Adding these adjustments we get

Total Adjustments required in Water content percent =+3%

Total Adjustments required in percentage sand in total aggregate = -3.5

Therefore, required sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume= 35 – 3.5 = 31.5 %

Required water content =186 + (186x 3) / 100 = 186 + 5.58 =191.6 litre /m^{3}

(3.3)DETERMINATION OF CEMENT CONTENT

Water cement ratio = 0.50

Water = 191.61

Cement = 191.6/0.50 = 383 kg/m^{3}

This cement content is adequate for mild exposure condition, according to Appendix A of IS ; 456-1978.

(3.4)DETERMINATION OF COARSE AND FINE AGGREGATE CONTENT

From Table 3, for the specified maximum size of 20mm , the amount of entrapped air in the wet concrete is 2%. Taking this into account and applying equations from 3.5.1 of IS ; 10262 -1982.

Therefore,

For fine aggregate ;-

0.98 = [191.58 + (383.16/2.608)+(1/0.315) x (f_{a} / 2.59) ] x (1/1000)

f_{a} = 525.82

For coarse aggregate ;-

0.98 = [ 191.58 + (383.16/2.608) + (1/(1-0.315) x (C_{a} / 2.83)] x (1/1000)

C_{a} = 1139.43 kg/m3

The mix proportions then becomes

Water: Cement:Fine aggregate:Coarse aggregate

191.61: 383kg: 525.82 : 1139.43kg

or

**0.50 :1:1.372: 2.97**

**VOLUMES**

Volume of cube = 15 x 15 x 15 =3375cm^{3}

Volume of cylinder = ? x 7.52 x 30 =5301.44

Total volume = 8676.44

Add 10% extra volume = 9544.084

Volume of concrete = (1 / 2.602) + (1.372 / 2.59) + (2.97 / 2.66) + (0.5 / 1) = 2.529

Weight of cement = (1 / V) x volume = (1 / 2.529) x 9544.084) = 3.77kg

Weight of fine aggregate = 1.372 x 3773.85 = 5.177 kg

Weight of coarse aggregate = 2.97 x 3773.85 = 11.208 kg

Required amount of water = 0.5 x 3773.85 = 1886.92 litre

—————————————————————

**FOR TWO SPECIMEN**

Weight of cement = 7.547 kg

Weight of fine aggregate = 10.355 kg

Weight of coarse aggregate = 22.41 kg

Required water = 3-77 litre

(3.5)MIX PROPORTIONS:

Five concrete mixes with stone dust were produced, replacing 0%(reference mixture ), 5%,10%,15%,and 20%,Cement, in terms of weight. The concrete mix proportion for M20 grade was designed in accordance with I.S. code.

**QUANTITY OF MARBLE POWDER;**

5% of cement replaced by marble powder = 377.38gm

10% of marble powder = 754.7 gm

15% of marble powder = 1.13 kg

20 %of marble powder = 1.5094 kg

**Experimental conditions: **

Compressive strength of concrete was undertaken on 15 cm cubic specimens. at 7 days and 28 days of age. Regarding splitting tensile strength, cylinders with 30 cm of height and 15 cm of diameter were casted and tested at 28 days of age. All specimens were removed 48 hours after casting, and then transferred to regular conditions (interior of the laboratory ) till testing.

**(4) PREPARATION AND CURING OF SPECIMEN:**

Standard cubic specimens of 150 mm size were cast. Concrete cubes were cast for compressive strength. The standard cylindrical specimen of 100mm diameter and 300mm height cylindrical specimens were caste for tensile strength.

**(5)TESTING OF HARDENED CONCRETE**

(5.1)COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH – 7 DAYS

% | 1 | 2 | average | Compressive strength ( MPa) |

0% | 380 | 340 | 360 | 16 |

5% | 355 | 405 | 380 | 16.88 |

10% | 390 | 430 | 410 | 18.22 |

15% | 275 | 325 | 300 | 13.33 |

20% | 290 | 270 | 280 | 12.44 |

(5.2)COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH – 28 DAYS

% | 1 | 2 | average | Compressive strength(MPa) |

0% | 535 | 565 | 550 | 24.40 |

5% | 580 | 620 | 600 | 26.67 |

10 % | 675 | 645 | 660 | 29.33 |

15% | 470 | 435 | 452.5 | 20.11 |

20% | 420 | 440 | 420 | 18.67 |

5.3)GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

(5.4)TENSILE STRENGTH – 7 DAYS

% marble powder | Specimen 1
tensile load |
Specimen 2
tensile load |
mean | Tensile strength
(MPa) |

0% | 111 | 129 | 120 | 1.69 |

5% | 130 | 136 | 133 | 1.88 |

10% | 125 | 151 | 138 | 1.95 |

15% | 100 | 128 | 114 | 1.61 |

20% | 108 | 84 | 96 | 1.35 |

(5.5)TENSILE STRENGTH – 28 DAYS

% marble powder | Specimen 1,
tensile load |
Specimen 2,
tensile load |
mean | Tensile strength
(MPa) |

0% | 170 | 178 | 174 | 2.461 |

5% | 182 | 185 | 183.5 | 2.59 |

10% | 197 | 201 | 199 | 2.84 |

15% | 165 | 170 | 167.5 | 2.36 |

20% | 141 | 162 | 151.5 | 2.14 |

**(5.6)GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH**

**(6) RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Compression Test:**

Mechanical behaviour of concrete cubes prepared without chemical admixtures was studied by compressive tests (Grade M20and curing time of 7 days and 28 days. It can be noticed that 5% replacement of cement with marble dust in mild condition and 10% replacement of cement with marble dust in mild condition, are showing increase in compressive strength.

**Tensile Strength test**

Mechanical behaviour of cylindrical specimens prepared without chemical admixtures was studied by tensile strength test. (Grade M20),curing times of 7 days and 28 days and the results obtained are reported. It is noticed that 5% replacement of cement with marble dust in mild condition and 10% replacement of cement with marble dust in severe conditions, are showing increase in tensile strength.

**(7)CONCLUSIONS:**

Due to marble dust, it proved to be very effective in assuring very good cohesiveness of mortar and concrete. From the above study, it is concluded that the marble dust can be used as a replacement material for cement ; and 10% replacement of marble dust gives an excellent result in strength aspect and quality aspect and it is better than the control concrete. The results showed that the substitution of 10% of the cement content by marble stone dust induced higher compressive strength, higher splitting tensile strength, and improvement of properties related to durability.

Test results show that this industrial waste is capable of improving hardened concrete performance up to 15%, enhancing fresh concrete behaviour and can be used in plain concrete.

**(8) REFERENCES:**

1) CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY – M.S. SHETTY

2) DESIGN OF CONCRETE MIXES- N.KRISHNA RAJU

We at engineeringcivil.com are very thankful to Er. Rahul for submitting this project report to us. We hope this will be of great help to other fellowCivil Engineers.

What about effect in structure.? Plz

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