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Determine The Liquid Limit Of Soil

This test is done to determine the liquid limit of soil as per IS: 2720 (Part 5) – 1985. The liquid limit of fine-grained soil is the water content at which soil behaves practically like a liquid, but has small shear
strength. It’s flow closes the groove in just 25 blows in Casagrande’s liquid limit device. The apparatus used :-
i) Casagrande’s liquid limit device
ii) Grooving tools of both standard and ASTM types
iii) Oven
iv) Evaporating dish
v) Spatula
vi) IS Sieve of size 425µm
vii) Weighing balance, with 0.01g accuracy
viii) Wash bottle
ix) Air-tight and non-corrodible container for determination of moisture content

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Determine Particle Size Distribution Of Soil

This test is done to determine the particle size distribution of soil as per IS: 2720 (Part 4) – 1985. The appratus required to do this test :-
i) A set of fine IS Sieves of sizes – 2mm, 600µm, 425µm, 212µm and 75µm
ii) A set of coarse IS Sieves of sizes – 20mm, 10mm and 4.75mm
iii) Weighing balance, with an accuracy of 0.1% of the weight of sample
iv) Oven
v) Mechanical shaker
vi) Mortar with rubber pestle
vii) Brushes
viii) Trays

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Determining Water Content In Soil – Calcium Carbide Method

This test is done to determine the water content in soil by calcium carbide method as per IS: 2720 (Part II) – 1973. It is a method for rapid determination of water content from the gas pressure developed by the reaction of calcium carbide with the free water of the soil. From the calibrated scale of the pressure gauge the percentage of water on total mass of wet soil is obtained and the same is converted to water content on dry mass of soil.

Apparatus required :-
i) Metallic pressure vessel, with a clamp for sealing the cup, alongwith a gauge calibrated in percentage water content
ii) Counterpoised balance, for weighing the sample
iii) Scoop, for measuring the absorbent (Calcium Carbide)
iv) Steel balls – 3 steel balls of about 12.5mm dia. and 1 steel ball of 25mm dia.
v) One bottle of the absorbent (Calcium Carbide)

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Determining Water Content In Soil – Oven Drying Method

This test is done to determine the water content in soil by oven drying method as per IS: 2720 (Part II) – 1973. The water content (w) of a soil sample is equal to the mass of water divided by the mass of solids.

Apparatus required :-
i) Thermostatically controlled oven maintained at a temperature of 110 ± 5oC
ii) Weighing balance, with an accuracy of 0.04% of the weight of the soil taken
iii) Air-tight container made of non-corrodible material with lid
iv) Tongs

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Determining Softening Point Of Bitumen

This test is done to determine the softening point of asphaltic bitumen and fluxed native asphalt, road tar, coal tar pitch and blown type bitumen as per IS: 1205 – 1978. The principle behind this test is that softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains a particular degree of softening under specified condition of the test.

The apparatus required for this test :-
i) Ring and ball apparatus
ii) Thermometer – Low Range : -2 to 80oC, Graduation 0.2oC – High Range : 30 to 200oC, Graduation 0.5oC

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