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What is Top-Down Construction- Procedure, Advantages and Disadvantages

What is Top-Down Construction?
In top-down construction, permanent structures are built from the ground up, beginning with a deep basement excavation. This method is the inverse of the more common bottom-up approach. This method involves constructing the basement levels in layers as the excavation continues. The concrete floors in basements act as lateral bracing for the surrounding walls. Slabs for the ground floor and basement are poured into the excavation holes. Since all subsequent below-grade levels have been completed, the floors can now act as lateral bracing for the perimeter walls.

Diaphragm walls, or “D” walls as they are more commonly known, are a type of perimeter wall that provides a foolproof answer to any problem that may arise during underground building. D walls are ideal for controlling groundwater movement and maintaining stable earth retention.

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How to Choose Best Hung Windows For Your House

Hung windows open and close vertically sliding panes or sashes. These windows have been around for centuries, but with the increase in demand for replacement windows over the last two decades, they have regained popularity.

Types of Hung Windows:

Because hanging windows are becoming increasingly popular, you may find a wide range of options from various manufacturers that will meet both your aesthetic and functional requirements. The following are the two most popular forms of hanging windows:

1.Single-Hung Windows
2. Double-Hung Windows

1.Single-Hung Windows:

Fig 1 Single - Hung Windows
Fig 1: Single -Hung Windows

A single-hung window’s lower sash slides up from the bottom while the top sash remains stationary. When both sashes are open, they overlap; thus, no extra ventilation space is required. It’s a popular choice in bedrooms and high-traffic locations like a patio since it increases space around the window when the top sash is out of reach or does not work.
These windows let in plenty of natural light and fresh air while maintaining a traditional look. Because the top sash is fixed, single-hung windows are energy efficient and simple to operate. In the sections below, you’ll find more ideas and information.

Advantages of Single -Hung Windows:

  • Materials and installation are less expensive.
  • The homeowner can easily install the unit because it is pre-assembled.
  • Framing material may be of lower quality because it is not subjected to stress.
  • Vinyl, wood and steel window frames all work nicely.

Disadvantages of Single-Hung Windows:

  • It cannot be easy to reach all parts of the window for cleaning.
  • Bottom-opening windows can harm dogs and small children, especially on the second or third floor.

2. Double-Hung Windows:

Fig 2 Double - Hung Windows
Fig 2: Double – Hung Windows

A double-hung window can be raised from the bottom or lowered from the top with two sashes that move separately. The two sashes are stacked together and are joined in the middle by a latch that closes the window. Double-hung windows are straightforward to clean because both sashes tilt inward for easy access to the inner and exterior glass surfaces. Because double-hung windows breathe without projecting inwards or outwards, they maximize both internal and external space, making them attractive in entertaining outdoor areas such as patios and porches.

In classic and rural houses, double-hung windows are popular. A basic grille design completes the traditional look, adding subtle detail and charm.

Advantages of Double-Hung Windows:

  • Higher adaptability
  • Window frames made of vinyl, wood, or steel perform well, and the majority of manufacturers provide a wide selection of colors and styles.
  • With the sliding and tilting options, cleaning the windows is a breeze.
  • The use of two locking mechanisms provides additional security.
  • Pets and children are safer when the upper part of the window is opened instead of just the bottom half.
  • Increased ventilation, especially in wet places like toilets, by opening the top and bottom windows, enabling warm air to leave and cool air to enter at the bottom.

Disadvantages of Double-Hung Windows:

  • A high-quality frame is required to prevent the top sash’s seal from breaking down due to gravity’s pull on the sash.
  • Replacement parts are typically more expensive.
  • It’s more difficult to find custom sizes and shapes.

The following factors are considered when selecting the best-hung windows:

1. Installation and proper measurements:

The first step is to choose the most appropriately hung window. Because this is a challenging DIY undertaking, a reliable company should perform the installation. Working with professionals is strongly suggested. Look up reviews online, ask friends for recommendations, and make sure you understand every detail of your job before signing the replacement contract. A painless installation is vital for your comfort and peace of mind.

2. Efficiency in Energy:

Choosing energy-efficient windows for your home has numerous advantages. Higher insulation improves home comfort, reduces energy expenses paid by HVAC systems, reduces your carbon footprint, and protects your furniture from fading due to UV radiation. Your hanging windows must be Energy-Star rated to be considered energy-efficient.

Your windows have been extensively tested in certified labs to ensure that they meet a variety of stringent heat gain and loss requirements, including low U-factor values, low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), and little air leakage. The SHGC measures the amount of solar heat that travels through your window, whereas the U-factor measures the amount of non-solar heat that passes through it over time.

3. Glazing:

Another factor to look at is whether you want to double- or triple-glazed windows. Remember that the more glass panes you have, the greater the insulation against cold air draughts. Additionally, triple-glazed windows are more moisture resistant and increase the value of your home. However, remember that such units are typically 15% more expensive, and the ROI will be lower if your home’s thermal performance is already adequate.

Kitchens, bedrooms, living areas, and dining rooms benefit from hung windows. Bathrooms are a big concern since they are the most humid rooms in a building.


It is simple to choose the best-hung windows. Think about your home’s thermal performance, design, and exterior, as well as whether or not you’re comfortable with vertically sliding units. When utility costs rise, replacing windows, doors, and roofs will result in a more energy-efficient home. You’ll appreciate the increased comfort while lowering your heating and cooling costs.


1. What Are Single Hung Windows?. (2021, April 15). What are Single Hung Windows?.
2. & Doors, H. W. (n.d.). What Are Hung Windows? What’s the Difference Between Single-Hung And Double-Hung? – Hodges Window & Doors. What Are Hung Windows? What’s the Difference Between Single-Hung and Double-Hung? – Hodges Window & Doors.
3. Comparing Single-Hung Vs. Double-Hung Windows | Pella. (n.d.). Comparing Single-Hung vs. Double-Hung Windows.
4. Single Hung Vs. Double Hung Window: What’s the Difference? | Milgard Blog | Milgard. (n.d.). Single Hung vs. Double Hung Window: What’s the Difference? | Milgard Blog | Milgard.
5. What Are Single Hung Windows?. (2021, April 15). What are Single Hung Windows?.
6. Single-Hung Vs. Double-Hung Windows. (2021, January 5). The Spruce.

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