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If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures, the stress, lb/in2 (MPa), due to a temperature change is
E= modulus of elasticity of pipe material, lb/in2
T= temperature change from installation temperature
c= coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe material
The movement that should be allowed for, if expansion joints are to be used, is
L=movement in length L of pipe
L= length between expansion joints.
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