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The utilization of industrial and agricultural waste produced by industrial process has been the focus on waste reduction research for economical, environmental and technical reasons. SCBA is a fibrous waste product of the sugar refining industry, along with ethanol vapour. Bagasse ash mainly contains aluminium ion and silica. The use of SCBA as a pozzolonic material for producing high strength concrete. OPC is partially replaced with finely SCBA. At present the disposal of waste tyre is becoming a major waste management problem in the world. In this project, the bagasse ash has been chemically and physically characterized and partially replaced in the ratio of 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% by weight of cement in concrete. The mix proportion for M30 grade concrete was derived. Rubber tyre waste has been used as coarse aggregate with replacement of conventional coarse aggregate and it is taken as constant of 10%.
Ordinary Portland cement is the most extensively used construction material in the world. Portland cement is the conventional building material that actually is responsible for about 5%-8% of global CO2 emissions. This environmental problem will most likely be increased due to exponential demand of Portland cement. Today we are focusing on ways of utilizing either industrial or agricultural waste, as a source of raw materials for industry. This waste, utilization would not only be economical, but may also result in foreign exchange earnings and environmental pollution control. Several researchers and even the Portland cement industry are investigating alternatives to produce green building materials. Industrial wastes, such as blast furnace slag, fly ash and silica fume are being used as supplementary cement replacement materials. Agro wastes such as rice husk ash, wheat straw ash, hazel nutshell and sugarcane bagasse ash are used as pozzolanic materials for the development of concrete. Currently, there has been an attempt to utilize the large amount of bagasse ash, the residue from an in-line sugar industry and the bagasse-biomass fuel in electric generation industry. When this waste is burned under controlled conditions, it also gives ash having amorphous silica, which has pozzolanic properties. Solid waste is concerned with waste tyres, has become a problem of interest because of its non-biodegradable nature. Tyre rubber wastes represent a major environmental problem of increasing significance. Most of the waste tyre rubbers are used as a fuel in many of the industries such as thermal power plant, cement kilns and brick kilns etc. this material can also be used for non load-bearing purposes such as noise reduction barriers. Investigations about rubber waste concrete show that concrete performance is very dependent on the waste aggregates. Further investigations are needed to clarify for instance which are the characteristics that maximize concrete performance.
Sugarcane is major crop grown in over 110 countries and its total production is over 1500 million tons. Sugarcane production in India is over 300 million tonnes per year. The processing of it in sugar-mill generates about 10 million tonnes of SCBA as a waste material. Each ton of sugarcane generates approximately 26% of bagasse (at a moisture content of 50%) and 0.62% of residual ash. The residue after combustion dominates by silicon dioxide.
extraction of all economical sugar from sugarcane, about 40-45% fibrous residue was obtained, which is reused in the same industry as fuel in boilers for heat generation leaving behind 8 -10 % ash as waste, known as sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA). The SCBA contains high amounts of un-burnt matter, silicon, aluminum and calcium oxides In spite of being a material of hard degradation and that presents few nutrients, the ash is used on the farms as a fertilizer in the sugarcane harvests.
Natural aggregates in concrete can be replaced with scrap tyre rubber which seems to be the best way to use waste tyre rubber. This paper reviews the tests performed to determine the compressive strength, flexural tensile strength, water absorption and water penetration of using rubber tyre waste in concrete. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images were also presented in this paper. Researchers have been concluded that incorporation of waste tyre rubber in concrete shows better results when compared with conventional concrete mix.
Due to particular shape and impermeable nature of waste tyre rubber, it provides a breeding habitat for mosquitoes and various pests when it is disposed to lands. Burning of tyres leads to high temperature and formation of toxic fumes. Classification of scrap rubber tyre are: chipped, crumb and ground rubber. In micro milling process the particles made are in the range of 0.075–0.475 mm. NaOH solution gave the best result during the surface treatments test of the rubber surface. Due to high complex configuration of the ingredient materials, accumulation of discarded tyres is a major problem. As per literatures better results were obtained when fine aggregates are replaced with waste rubber tyres. This would facilitate the effective use of the waste also to minimize the accumulation of the tyres. Resistance to chloride ion penetration was reported by when w/c of 0.65 was adopted. When 2.5 % to 15% granulated rubber content was used as a partial replacement of sand, reduction chloride ion penetration was observed in mortar specimens. It observed that chloride-ion penetration increases when crumb rubber and rubber chips are partially replaced for coarse aggregate and fine aggregate. Also it observed that when silica fume was added chloride ion permeability
OPC 43 grade of cement was used. Specific gravity of natural river sand was found to be 2.63, free surface moisture was 1%, water absorption was 1.5% and fineness modulus was 2.83. Coarse aggregate of 10 mm size of 40% was used, its fineness modulus was 5.573, water absorption was 0.3% and 20 mm size of 60% was used. Stages of rubber tyre are shown in Figure 1. Crumb rubber was supplied by a local industry. Tyre rubber was ground into three sizes namely 30 mesh, 0.8 to 2 mm and 2mm to 4 mm after removing the steel and textile fibers. The specific gravity of rubber powder was 1.05 and 1.13. Crumb rubber seems to have a smooth surface when compared with river sand. Silica fumes was also used to enhance the interfacial transition zone bonding. Silica fume is more reactive than fly ash at ordinary temperatures. Poly carboxylic ether-polymer was used to achieve proper workability of concrete mixes.
In this project 0%, 5%, 15%, and 25% of bagase ash used in M30 grade of concrete. Cube specimens of size 150mm*150mm*150mm, cylinder specimens of 150mm diameter and 300mm height and prism specimens of size 100mm*100mm*500mm were casted for different proportions with bagase ash. The tests performed on hardened concrete after 7and 28 days of curing were compression test, split tensile strength test and flexural strength test. The collected bagase ash and rubber are shown in fig.1 and Fig.2 &Fig.3
Fig.3 Bagase ash
Fig.4 Rubber Tyre
The specific weight of the concrete modified with waste rubber reduces as the level of substitution of aggregates with tyre particles increases. This reduction can be attributed to the specific weight of tyre rubber being lower than that of traditional aggregates (1.09 for tyre rubber compared with 2.73 for coarse aggregates). However showed that the decrease in specific weight is almost negligible for rubber contents lower than 10%-20% of the total aggregate volume. The durability of a material is often related to its capacity to resist water absorption. The primary transport mechanism by which water enters cement composites is capillarity by suction. The smaller the capillarity, higher the durability of the composite. Water absorption on the tyre shreds is zero. Then it is consider reducing water cement ratio on the modified rubberized concrete.The mix proportion to be used for experimental study was arrived by doing a detailed. Concrete mix design and the method used is Indian Standards recommended method of concrere mix design IS: 10262-1982. Water cement ratio required for the target mean strength from the IS: 10262-1982 is 0.48. Nominal mix and rubberized concrete mix has prepared. Dimensions of 150*150*150mm moulds were used to prepare cubes for compressive strength tests and 150mm diameter and 300mm length cylindrical specimens were used for split tensile strength tests. Compressive ,split tensile strength was measured in concrete specimens with 10%,15% substitution of natural aggregate by junk tyre rubber shreds. The cube specimens were tested for compressive strength at the end of 3,7,14 & 28 days. The specimens stored in water were tested after drying the specimens code conforming to (IS: 516-1959). Placing a cylindrical specimen horizontally between the loading surfaces of a Univeresal testing machine carries out this test and the load is applied until failure of the cylinder, along the vertical diameter. Split tensile strength test code conforming to IS: 5816-1999.
Experimental Investigation on Concrete by Partially Replacement of Ware Aggregate with Junk Rubber
|Name of the
The results of the present investigation are presented both in tabular and graphical forms. In order to facilitate the analysis, interpretation of the results is carried out at each phase of the experimental work.
The interpretation of the results obtained is based on the current knowledge available in the literature as well as on the nature of results obtained. The significance of the result is assessed with reference to the standards specified by the relevant IS codes.
The basic objective of this research was to evaluate the fresh and hardened properties of a concrete produced by replacing part of the natural coarse aggregates with an aggregate produced from locally available recycled waste tyre and subjected to local conditions, and replacing part of cement with fly ash, from the test results of the samples, as compared to the respective conventional concrete properties.
SCOPE OF THE WORK
As India is fast developing country in all over the world. With the growth of modern societies of industrial revolutions, the movability within automobile sector got momentum. About one crore 10 lakhs all types of new vehicles are added per annum on the Indian roads. The increase of about three crores discarded tyres each year poses a potential threat to the environment. An estimated 1000 million tyres reached the end of their lives per year. . Generally all the tyre waste is disposed by burning, during the process of burning very harmful gases are evolved and that polluted the environment. Besides the high temperature causes tyres to melt, thus producing oil that will contaminate water and solid. Still millions of automobile tyres are just being buried all over the world. The major advantage is for the environment. So by using the tyre as an aggregate in concrete we can minimize the environmental pollution.
METHODOLOGY & PROPOSED PLACE OF WORK
Indian Standard CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONING-GUIDELINES
DATA FOR MIX PROPORTIONING
The following data arc required for mix proportioning of a particular grade of concrete:
Step-1. Design Specifications
This is the step where we gather all the required information for designing a concrete mix from the client. The data required for mix proportioning is as follows.
Step-2. Target Strength Calculation
Calculate the target compressive strength of concrete using the formula given below.
fck’ = fck + 1.65s
fck’ = Target compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm2.
fck = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm2. (same as grade of concrete, see table below)
s = Standard deviation
The value of standard deviation, given in the table below, can be taken for initial calculation.
|Grade of Concrete
|Characteristic compressive strength (N/mm2)
|Assumed standard deviation (N/mm2)
Step-3. Selection of Water-Cement Ratio
For preliminary calculation, water cement ratio as given is IS-456-Table 5 (also given below) for different environmental exposure condition, may be used.
Note: Use Table-1 for finding out water-cement ratio of Plain Concrete and use Table-2 for finding out water-cement ratio of Reinforced Concrete.
Table 3 Plain Concrete
|Environmental Exposure Condition
|Minimum Cement Content (kg/m3)
|Maximum Free Water-Cement Ratio
|Minimum Grade of Concrete
Table 4 Reinforced Concrete
|Environmental Exposure Condition
|Minimum Cement Content (kg/m3)
|Maximum Free Water-Cement Ratio
|Minimum Grade of Concrete
Refer the table given below (As per IS-456) to choose right type of environment depending upon different exposure conditions to concrete.
|Concrete surfaces protected against weather or aggressive conditions, except those situated in coastal areas.
|Concrete surfaces sheltered from severe rain or freezing whilst wet Concrete exposed to condensation and rain Concrete continuously under water Concrete in contact or buried under non aggressive soil/ground water Concrete surfaces sheltered from saturated salt air in coastal area
|Concrete surfaces exposed to severe rain, alternate wetting and drying or occasional freezing whilst wet or severe condensation Concrete completely immersed in sea water Concrete exposed to coastal environment
|Concrete surfaces exposed to sea water spray, corrosive fumes or severe freezing condition whilst wet Concrete in contact with or buried under aggressive sub-soil/ground water
|Surface members in tidal zone Members in direct contact with liquid/solid aggressive chemicals
Step-4. Selection of Water Content
Selection of water content depends upon a number of factors such as
Factors that can increase water demand are as follows
The quantity of maximum mixing water per unit volume of concrete may be selected from the table given below.
|Maximum water content per cubic meter of concrete for nominal maximum size of aggregate
|Nominal maximum size of aggregate
|Maximum water content
The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for angular coarse aggregate and for a slump value in between 25 to 50mm. Do the following adjustments if the material used differs from the specified condition.
|Type of material/condition
|For sub angular aggregate
|Reduce the selected value by 10kg
|For gravel with crushed stone
|Reduce the selected value by 20kg
|For rounded gravel
|Reduce the selected value by 25kg
|For every addition of 25mm slump
|Increase the selected value by 3%
|If using plasticizer
|Decrease the selected value by 5-10%
|If using super plasticizer
|Decrease the selected value by 20-30%
Note: Aggregates should be used in saturated surface dry condition. While computing the requirement of mixing water, allowance shall be made for the free surface moisture contributed by the fine and coarse aggregates. On the other hand, if the aggregate are completely dry, the amount of mixing water should be increased by an amount equal to moisture likely to be absorbed by the aggregate
Step-5. Calculating Cementious Material Content
From the water cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of cement, calculate the amount of cementious material. After calculating the quantity of cementious material, compare it with the values given in the table shown in Step-4. The greater of the two values is then adopted. If any mineral admixture (such as fly ash) is to be used, then decide the percentage of mineral admixture to be used based on project requirement and quality of material.
Step-6. Finding out Volume Proportions for Coarse Aggregate & Fine Aggregate
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate is given in the following table.
|Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate
The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for a water-cement ratio of 0.5 and based on aggregates in saturated surface dry condition.
If water-cement ratio other than 0.5 is to be used then apply correction using the rule given below.
Rule: For every increase or decrease by 0.05 in water-cement ratio, the above values will be decreased or increased by 0.01, respectively.
If the placement of concrete is done by a pump or where is required to be worked around congested reinforcing steel, it may be desirable to reduce the estimated coarse aggregate content determined as above, upto 10 percent.
After calculating volume of coarse aggregate, subtract it from 1, to find out the volume of fine aggregate.
Step-7. Mix Calculations
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be done as follows.
|Volume of concrete=
|Volume of cement=
|(Mass of cement/specific gravity of cement)*(1/1000)
|Volume of water=
|(Mass of water/specific gravity of water)*(1/1000)
|Volume of admixture=
|(Mass of admixture/specific gravity of admixture)*(1/1000)
|Volume of total aggregate (C.A+F.A)=
|Mass of coarse aggregate=
|e*Volume of coarse aggregate*specific gravity of coarse aggregate*1000
|Mass of fine aggregate=
|e*Volume of fine aggregate*specific gravity of fine aggregate*1000
Step-8. Trial Mix
Conduct a trial mix as per the amount of material calculated above.
Step-9. Measurement of Workability (by slump cone method)
The workability of the trial mix no.1 shall be measured. The mix shall be carefully observed for freedom from segregation and bleeding and its finishing properties.
Step-10. Repeating Trial Mixes
If the measured workability of trial mix no.1 is different from stipulated value, the water and/or admixture content shall be adjusted suitably. With this adjustment, the mix proportion shall be recalculated keeping the free water-cement ratio at pre-selected value.
Trial-2 – increase water or admixture, keeping water-cement ratio constant
Trial-3 – Keep water content same as trial-2, but increase water-cement ratio by 10%.
Trial-4 – Keep water content same as trial-2, but decrease water-cement ratio by 10%
Trial mix no 2 to 4 normally provides sufficient information, including the relationship between compressive strength and water-cement ratio.
1. Partial replacement of cement by SCBA increases workability of fresh concrete.
2. The SCBA concrete gives higher compressive strength than that control concrete.
3. The split tensile strength is increased with decreased percentage of scrap tyre rubber.
4. Compressive strength of 40.89N/mm2, split tensile strength of 2.83N/mm2, and flexural strength of 6.33N/mm2 at 28days is achieved for M30.
5. Comparison of control concrete and various percentage of SCBA with 5%, 15% will be increased 3%, 10% of compressive strength. In SCBA 25%, the compressive strength will be decreased 3 %.
6. Comparison of control concrete and various percentage of SCBA with 5%, 15% will be increased 3%, 6% of Split tensile strength. In SCBA 25%, the Split tensile strength will be decreased 12 %.
7. Comparison of control concrete and various percentage of SCBA with 5%, 15% will be increased 9%, 26% of Flexural strength. In SCBA 25%, the Flexural strength will be decreased 2 %.
8. The compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexure increases with SCBA up to 15% replacement and decreases, the results of 25% replacement.
9. It is clearly seen that the 20% cost of cement can be save with better strength than control concrete.
10. The test result indicate that the strength of concrete increase up to 15% SCBA replacement with cement.
1. IS 10262 (2009): Guidelines for concrete mix design proportioning
2. IS: 456-2000”code of practice for plain and reinforcement concrete”.
3. Shetty M.S., Concrete Technology, S.Chand and Company Ltd., Delhi
4. Kotresh K.M, Mesfin Getahun Belachew, “Study On Waste Tyre Rubber As Concrete Aggregates” International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology(IJSET) (ISSN : 2277-1581)Volume No.3, April 2014.
5. U.R.Kawade, V.R.Rathi, Vaishali D.Girge,“ Effect of Use of Bagasse Ash on Strength of Concrete” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science ,Engineering and Techonolgy(IJIRSET) ISSN: 2319–8753, Volume-2, Issue-7, july 2013.
6.“Utilization Of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a Supplementary Cementitious Material in Concrete and Mortar – A Review”,International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308, Volume 6, April 2015.
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