What cause more damage to bituminous pavement?

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Which of the following cause much damage to bituminous pavement?
(a) Low usage by heavy vehicles or frequent usage of light vehicles
(b) Low speed traffic or high speed traffic

The relationship between axle weight and the associated pavement damage is not linear but exponential. The pavement damage caused by one passage of a fully loaded tractor-semi trailer (80kN) is more than 3,000 passages of private cars (9KN). Hence, heavy trucks and buses are responsible for a majority of pavement damage.


Slow-moving traffic imposes greater damage than fast-moving traffic. Past studies showed that when the speed is increased from 2km/hr to 24km/hr, the stress and pavement deflection is reduced by 40%.

This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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