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Vertical drains can be installed in square and triangular patterns. Which pattern is better?

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Vertical drains are commonly installed in square and triangular patterns. The zone of influence of vertical drains (R) is a function of drain spacing (S).

For drains in square pattern: R = 0.546S
For drains in triangular pattern: R = 0.525S

The advantages of square pattern are that it is more convenient to lay out and manage on site. However, triangular pattern is the most popular one because it provides a more uniform consolidation between drains than square pattern.

Square pattern and triangular pattern of vertical drains

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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