Grout in prestressing works serves the following purposes:
(i) Protect the tendon against corrosion.
(ii) Improve the ultimate capacity of tendon.
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Reinforcement of anchor blocks in prestressing works generally consists of bursting reinforcement, equilibrium reinforcement and spalling reinforcement. Bursting reinforcement is used where tensile stresses are induced during prestressing operation and the maximum bursting stress occurs where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of the load. Reinforcement is needed to resist these lateral tensile forces. For equilibrium reinforcement, it is required where there are several anchorages in which prestressing loads are applied sequentially.
(i) Spalling reinforcement
Spalling stresses are established behind the loaded area of anchor blocks and this causes breaking away of surface concrete. These stresses are induced by strain incompatibility with Poisson’s effects or by the shape of stress trajectories.
(ii) Equilibrium reinforcement
Equilibrium reinforcement is required where there are several anchorages in which prestressing loads are applied sequentially.
During prestressing operation at one end, frictional losses will occur and the prestressing force decreases along the length of tendon until reaching the other end. These frictional losses include the friction induced due to a change of curvature of tendon duct and also the wobble effect due to deviation of duct alignment from the centerline. Therefore, the prestress force in the mid-span or at the other end will be greatly reduced in case the frictional loss is high. Consequently, prestressing, from both ends for a single span i.e. prestressing one-half of total tendons at one end and the remaining half at the other end is carried out to enable a even distribution and to provide symmetry of prestress force along the structure.