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Why “inadequate pile founding level” commonly occurs in piles of piers?

The most severe load on piers generally is the horizontal load due to berthing and mooring of large vessels. The design of piers is taken as an example to illustrate the importance of adequate pile founding level. Since the widths of open berth piers are relatively small so that they provide a short lever arm to counteract the moment induced by berthing loads.

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Can soil plug be removed in marine piling system of steel tubular pile with reinforced concrete infill?

During initial driving process, open-ended steel piles are driven through the soils at their bases. However, shaft friction will gradually develop between the steel piles and soils inside piles at some time after pile driving. The hitting action of driving hammers induces forces to the soil and later it comes to a stage when the inertial forces of inside soils, together with the internal frictional forces exceeds the bearing capacity of soils at pile toes. Consequently, the soil plug formed is brought down by the piles.

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What is the significance of reinforced concrete infill in marine piling system of steel tubular pile with reinforced concrete infill?

Reinforced concrete is designed to fill the void space inside the steel tubular piles from pile cap to a certain distance below seabed. As mentioned earlier, steel tubular piles above seabed level is assumed in design to be completely corroded when approaching the end of design life. As such, loads from pile caps are transferred directly to reinforced concrete infill instead of steel tubular piles.

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Why are sleeves often installed inside the lower part of open-ended driven piles?

In marine piles, open-ended piles are more often used than close-ended piles to enhance longer length of piles installed. This is essential to provide better lateral resistance against berthing loads and other lateral loads in marine structures.

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How does soil plug in open-ended tubular piles affect its loading carrying capacity?

In marine piles, the tubular piles are sometimes purposely designed to be open-ended to facilitate deeper penetration. In this mode of pile formation, soil plug is formed inside the piles.

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