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What is the purpose of shaft grouting of deep foundations?

In shaft grouting operation, tube-a-manchette pipes are fixed at regular spacing to the reinforcement cage. After concreting barrettes/bored piles, a small volume of water is injected under high pressure into these pipes to crack the concrete.
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Can down the hole hammer function below water table?

Down the hole hammer has been used extensively to form pre-bored holes as rock sockets for mini piles and pre-bored H piles. The hammer functions by driving repeatedly a drill bit using compressed air on the rock. However, the use of down the hole hammer is normally limited to hole diameter of 600mm.
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Why can’t normal Reversed Circulation Drills function in shallow rock conditions?

Reversed Circulation Drill (RCD) is normally used for forming large diameter rock socket. The method involves the exertion of a download force of roller cutter bits on rock, together with the action of rotation and grinding of bits on rock. The cuttings are then removed by reverse circulation. The water and cuttings are airlifted through a central drill pipe, which is also used for rotating the drill bits.
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Should bentonite be added to improve the stability of grout?

For unstable grout, particles will come out of the grout suspension leading to incomplete grouting and clogging of pipes. The stability of grout can be improved by adding additives such as bentonite. However, bentonite should not be used with very fine cements because its grain size is bigger than that of fine cements. Tests conducted previously confirm that a grout with bentonite is less stable under pressure.
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What are the reasons in observed settlements in rockfill foundation?

Compression of rockfill is normally caused by a reduction in dimension of fill and by rearrangement of particles into closer packing.

When the rockfill are saturated, the strength of rock would be reduced accordingly. In fact, wetting of rock surfaces does not reduce the coefficient of sliding friction between rockfills. Considerable settlement may result not from the lubricating effect of water but from a reduction of rock strength at its point of contact. The contact points would then be crushed under intergranular force and the contact area increases until contact pressure is less than the strength of rockfill.
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