Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee
In India 0.93 kg of CO2 is emitted in the production of one kg of cement. In the financial year 2009-10 India produces 200 million tonnes of cement. In the production of this cement 186 million tonnes of CO2 was emitted in the atmosphere during financial year of 2009-10.
The availability of water in India per person per year in 1950 was 5177 cu.m. In the year 2009 it is reduces to 1700 cu.m.
If 50 million tonnes cement in making concrete uses water reducers 7500000 tonnes of cement can be saved. 3750000 kl of potable water will be saved and the saving of Rs. 3300 crores per year to construction industry. This amount is worked out after adjusting the cost of water reducers. Less cement used means less cement required to be produce by the cement factories resulting 6975000 tonnes of CO2 will be prevented to be emitted to the atmosphere. These are worked out with an average saving of 15% cement and 15% water.
CO2 emission is word problem, but for India in addition to CO2 it has problems of Air, Water, Soil, Food and Noise pollutions. Less densily populated countries may cope with these problems but for India it is of the top concern. The population figures of 2009 is, India 350 person per sq.km, China 132 person per sq.km and USA only 34 person per sq.km. The figures of 2006 CO¬2 emissions are USA 658.60 tonnes per sq.km, China 611.76 tonnes per sq.km and India 459.35 tonnes per sq.km. Every one should contribute his or her efforts to save the environment from pollution. Those involve in the construction activities can contribute their share by proper design of concrete Mixes. This is best illustrated by the following examples.