If wires/strands are stressed individually inside the same duct, then those stressed strand/wires will bear against those unstressed ones and trap them. Therefore, the friction of the trapped wires is high and is undesirable.
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Reinforcement of anchor blocks in prestressing works generally consists of bursting reinforcement, equilibrium reinforcement and spalling reinforcement. Bursting reinforcement is used where tensile stresses are induced during prestressing operation and the maximum bursting stress occurs where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of the load. Reinforcement is needed to resist these lateral tensile forces. For equilibrium reinforcement, it is required where there are several anchorages in which prestressing loads are applied sequentially.
(i) Spalling reinforcement
Spalling stresses are established behind the loaded area of anchor blocks and this causes breaking away of surface concrete. These stresses are induced by strain incompatibility with Poisson’s effects or by the shape of stress trajectories.
(ii) Equilibrium reinforcement
Equilibrium reinforcement is required where there are several anchorages in which prestressing loads are applied sequentially.
During prestressing operation at one end, frictional losses will occur and the prestressing force decreases along the length of tendon until reaching the other end. These frictional losses include the friction induced due to a change of curvature of tendon duct and also the wobble effect due to deviation of duct alignment from the centerline. Therefore, the prestress force in the mid-span or at the other end will be greatly reduced in case the frictional loss is high. Consequently, prestressing, from both ends for a single span i.e. prestressing one-half of total tendons at one end and the remaining half at the other end is carried out to enable a even distribution and to provide symmetry of prestress force along the structure.
Wind tunnel test is often conducted to check aerodynamic stability of long-span bridges. To properly conduct wind tunnel test, aerodynamic similarity conditions should be made equal between the proposed bridge and the model. Reynolds Number is one of these conditions and is defined as ratio of inertial force to viscous force of wind fluid. With equality of Froude Number, it is difficult to achieve equality in Reynolds Number.
Bridge parapets raise the overall level of bluffness of long-span bridges. When the solidity ratio of barriers increases, the effect of increasing the bluffness also becomes more significant. The principal effects of deck equipment such as median dividers and parapets is that it enhances an increase in drag forces and a reduction in average value of lift force.
When wind flows around a bridge, it would be slowed down when in contact with its surface and forms boundary layer. At some location, this boundary layer tends to separate from the bridge body owing to excessive curvature. This results in the formation of vortex which revises the pressure distribution over the bridge surface. The vortex formed may not be symmetric about the bridge body and different lifting forces are formed around the body.