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How do paver, steel-wheeled roller and pneumatic tire rollers carry out compaction?

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Paver, steel-wheeled roller and pneumatic tire roller compact bituminous material by using the following principles:

(i) The static weight of the paving machines exerts loads on the bituminous material and compresses the material directly beneath the machine. The compacting effort increases with the period of contact
and larger machine weight.

(ii) Compaction is brought about by the generation of shear stress between the compressed bituminous material under the machine and the adjacent uncompressed bitumen.

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This question is taken from book named – A Self Learning Manual – Mastering Different Fields of Civil Engineering Works (VC-Q-A-Method) by Vincent T. H. CHU.

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