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Abstract
This paper discussed the design of substructure of bridge subjected to load of train with using two codes, the first code is AASHTO code and the second is the Chinese Code. This study focuses on the substructure of the bridge design and the design manually with the two codes.
By the design of the Bridge using the codes above, we found that Chinese Code is more safely that the number of reinforcement bars more in the pile cap and pile.
Settlement of the bridge also is calculated by using the data collected from the project site, the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of pile group and the dynamic action of the train loads, by this study it can be concluded all the above are safe values.
Another analysis by using the threedimensional Plaxis program of finite elements and many parameters calculated, the value of the maximum vertical displacement was near from the calculated value which gives another checking for the design and maintain the safe conditions for the Bridge.
1. Introduction
Many of codes used in the world for design the bridges and many of countries have special codes for design depending on the specialty of that country and the nature, environmental conditions, effect of earth quakes etc. In the United States Bridge Engineers use AASHTO’s standard Specification for Highway Bridges and, in similar fashion or trends, German bridge engineer utilize the DIN standard and British use the BS 5400 code. In general, countries like German and United Kingdom which have developed and maintained major highway systems for a great many years possess their own national bridge standards. The AASHTO Standard Specification, however, have been accepted by many countries as the general code by which bridges should be designed.
In this paper, the design of a bridge by using two codes the AASHTO and Chinese codes. The AASHTO Code for design bridges named “American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials.”
In China there are many codes for design about 81 codes for design for all the majors in the civil engineering with serial numbers of standard, the code used for this study is (The Chinese National Standard (CNS, 2002)) [4], Building Foundation Design Code (GB500072002). The Chinese Codes for design bridges focusing on the railway design like:
– Fundamental Code for Design on Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.12005).
– Code for Design of Steel Structure of Railway Bridge (TB10002.22005).
– Code for Design on Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structure of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.32005).
– Code for Design on Concrete and Block Masonry Structure of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.42005).
– Code for Design on Subsoil and Foundation of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.52005).
– Standard for Constructional Quality Acceptance of Railway Bridge and Culvert Engineering
(TB104152003).
2. Research Significance
This paper is to make a comparison between two or more codes in different countries to show the differences and similarities and advantages and disadvantages also for checking the design by the analysis and find the suitability of using the structure according to the design.
3. Design with Two Codes
By using the manually procedure steps of calculating the design of the bridge through the data provided from a project and applying the standards loading as following:
Design load: deadweight of the 32 meter simply supported beam is 7862.88kN. Secondarydead load
is 3.792MN.
Total horizontal load = 0.12 × (7862.88 + 3792)
= 1398.585kN
Total vertical dead load = 7862.88 + 3792
= 11654.88kN
Live load from the superstructure according to Chinese Code:
Maximum = 220kN
Minimum = 92.0kN
By taking the same dimensions and loading but using the two codes above, it can be shown in Table 1, the design with the two codes is different in some parts of the bridge and similar in the other, that the safety of Chinese Code is more than of AASHTO Code.
Table 1: Comparison of design bridge by using two codes (similarities and differences)
Footing design 
AASHTO Code 
Chinese Code 
Dimensions 
(5×6)m, thickness = 1.5m 
(5×6)m, thickness = 1.5m 
Number of piles 
4bored piles with Dia. = 1m, with depth = 62.7m 
4bored piles with Dia. =1m, with depth = 62.7m 
Pile cap design 
25 bars #9 (2.8cm) in the bottom mats

Number of bars = 29 bars (2.8cm) in each direction in the bottom mats 
21 bars #9 (2.8cm) in the top mats 
Number of bars = 25 bars (2.8cm) in each direction in the top mats 

Pile design 
16 bars #8 (2.5cm) in the bottom

Number of bars = 20 bars (2.5cm) in each direction in the bottom 
24 bars #8 (2.5cm) in the top 
Number of bars = 29 bars (2.8cm) in each direction in the top 
4. Settlement calculation and discussion
4.1 Settlement calculation
The settlement calculated of the Bridge due to the effect of loading by using the data provided from the soil investigations and testing in addition to the provided information from the design as following:
The dimension of the pile cap: (length = 6m, width = 5m, thickness = 1.5m) as shown in Fig. 1
The applied pressure: 100kPa, 200kPa, 300kPa, 400kPa, 600kPa, 800kPa, 1000kPa
The depth of the piles: 62.7m (according to the soil investigations reaching to the strong layer)
Effective depth for piles = 2/3× (62.7) = 41.8m (the depth of calculation of effective stresses)
The stress increase at the middle of each soil layer by the load Q_{g} calculated in the following formula:
Table 2: Properties of the soil for all the depths of the layers
The model of the pile and pile caps of the designed bridge is shown in Fig. 2
Therefore, the /\S _{c}is calculated for each layer of soil and each load as shown in table 2, and draw the relation between load and settlement curve as shown in Fig. 1.
Table 3: The values of the pressure, load and settlement (AASHTOO)
P(kPa) 
Load (kN) 
Settlement (mm) 
0 
0 
0 
100 
3570 
1.267 
200 
7140 
2.576 
300 
10710 
3.907 
400 
14280 
5.256 
600 
21420 
7.999 
800 
28560 
10.773 
1000 
35700 
13.546 
4.2 Settlement Calculation in Chinese Code
The settlement of the pile group can be calculated from the following formula:
As shown from Table 4 and Fig. 2 that the maximum value for the settlement equal to about 11.973mm at pressure 1600kPa and this value within the permissible limit for the settlement compared with allowable settlement in the Chinese Code which equal to 1520mm.
5. Vertical Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Pile Group
In order to determine the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group, a large uniform pressure was applied to the top of the pile. In the calculation, a pressure of 1000kPa was imposed, which is equivalent to a resultant force of 30000kN (5×6×1000). The calculation gives the load versus settlement curve for the midpoint on the long side of the upper pile cap, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 shows that there is an obvious turning point on the loadsettlement curve. Before that turning point, the loadsettlement curve is approximately linear. After the turning point, the settlement increases abruptly as the load increases, indicating a divergent trend, and the final settlement cannot approach to a stabilized value.
The Chinese Standard specifies key points for a single pile load test (CNS, 2002), which includes taking the load corresponding to the beginning of the steep drop on the measured loadsettlement curve as the single pile bearing capacity. Applying this specification to the results of the numerical analysis on the pile group, the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group can be taken from the beginning of the steep drop on the calculated loadsettlement curve.
From Figure 2, it can obtain the load corresponding to the steep drop point to be 1000kPa, which is converted to a resultant force of 30000kN, i.e., the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group and this value is larger than the total vertical loads.
We can calculate the ultimate loadbearing capacity of group piles from the following formula:
Therefore the value of the ultimate loadbearing capacity of group piles more than the applied load, indicating the bearing capacity of the pile group is sufficient.
For the Chinese code we can also use the following formula for a single pile.
Table 5: Comparison of bridge design by using two codes (similarities and differences)
Final settlement calculation for pressure = 1000kPa  13.546mm (Eq. 2)  7.483mm (Eq. 3) 
Bearing capacity for group piles  3455.8kN (Eq. 4)  47601.6kN (Eq. 5) 
6. Action of Train Loading
The Railway has a design for speed of 350 km/h. The dynamic load of the highspeed train is transmitted to the bridge pier through rail track, track tie plates, and base plates and is transmitted to pile cap and pile foundation. To simplify the calculation, the load on the bottom of the track tie plates is assumed to act directly on the top of the pile cap and a pseudostatic method is used, which is considered conservative. The dynamic stress amplitude on the bottom of the track tie plates can be calculated as follows:
For the passenger cars used on the Rail Passenger Dedicated Line, P = 17 tons and V = 350 km/h. Using Eq. (7), the dynamic stress amplitude can be calculated to be 90kPa.
Since the train load is dynamic, a dynamic magnification factor of 10 was selected in the pseudostatic analysis, which is considered conservative. Therefore, the pressure acting on the top of the pile cap is 900kPa.
The above pressure (900kPa) is equivalent to load of (900×5×6 = 27000kN) is only 78% of the calculated ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group (34500.8kN). Therefore, it indicates that the train load is relatively small. The maximum settlement of the pile cap can be shown in Fig. 2 to be 12 mm, which satisfies the requirement of normal operation of a highspeed rail.
7. Analysis with Plaxis 3D Program for Finite Element
Another analysis is to check the model shown in Fig. 3 and calculating many parameters by using the Plaxis program for three dimensional analyses for finite elements. The analysis of the program depends on the same of soil investigations information and parameters of the soil strength. In the finite element analysis, the MohrCoulomb model with undrained conditions is used to simulate the constitutive relationship for the soil material and the linear elastic nonporous material model was used for the piles and pile cap of reinforced concrete structure.
7.1 Construct Modes for the Model
1 The gravity is applied to the original configuration, simulating the initial stress field.
2 Construction is started from drilling holes until completion of the superstructure. During construction, consolidation occurs in soils and settlement of the pile group is calculated. , reset displacement to zero.
3 Construct of the pile cap.
4 A greater load is applied to find the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile group, reset displacement
to zero.
The load applied in the model is the same of that using for the previous design and analysis. The results of the numerical analysis are shown in Figures from 4 to 11. The displacement value can be shown in Fig. 4, 5, 6 and 7 that the maximum value for displacement equal to 1.88 mm, the minus sign refers to the direction of the displacement to down, when compared this value with maximum value maintained from manual calculation shown in Figs. 1 and 2 is relatively little value that in the considerations for the numerical analysis more be accepted. Another values are maintained from the numerical calculations like incremental displacement, total Cartesian strain, incremental Cartesian strain, Cartesian total stress and pore water pressure, all these calculations are reasonable. Fig. 11 shows the indication for active stress of the soil; therefore, these values of the pore pressure are relatively small and during the time of the consolidation of the structure will not increase the final value of the consolidation settlement.
References:
1. AASHTO (1998), “AASHTOLRFD Bridge Design Specifications”, Customary US Units, second edition, Washington, DC.
2. Braja M. Das, “Principles of Foundation Engineering”, Sixth Edition.
3. “British Standard 5400”, University of Sheffield, 16 December 2002, Uncontrolled Copy, (c) BSI
4. “The Chinese National Standard (CNS, 2002)”. Building foundation design code (GB500072002), China Building Industry Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
5. Wan Ikram Wajdee b; Wan Ahmad Kamal, “Comparison of bridge design in Malaysia between American codes and British codes”, University Technology Malaysia MAC , 2005.
6. Skempton, A. W.; McDonald, D. M. (1956). “The allowable Settlement of Buildings”, Proceeding of Institute of Civil Engineers, Vol. 5, Part III, p. 727.
We at engineeringcivil.com are thankful to Sir Hussein for submitting this research paper to us. We hope this will be of great use to many civil engineering students around the world.
If you have a query, you can ask a question here.
thankq sir for this analysis……would u like to give an analysis of this problem ……
analysis and design of a steel bridge having rail load (i.e. railway bridge)
by mistake 4 pile group shifted along the C/L, and observe Shaft is on 2 piles How I calculate its Live loads of this pile