Things Site Engineers Must Know About Reinforcement and Steel Bars

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As Per Indian Guidelines Only.

Clear cover to main reinforcement in
Footings : 50 mm
Raft foundation Top : 50 mm
Raft foundation Bottom/ sides : 75 mm
Strap Beam : 50 mm
Grade Slab : 20 mm
Column : 40 mm (d>12mm) 25 mm (d= 12mm)
Shear Wall : 25 mm
Beams : 25 mm
Slabs : 15 mm or not less than diameter of the bar.
Flat Slab : 20 mm
Staircase : 15 mm
Retaining Wall on Earth : 20/ 25 mm
Water retaining structures : 20 / 30 mm
Sunshade (Chajja) : 25 mm

Hook for stirrups is 9D for one side

No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1

For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69D


ā€œLā€ for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300mm

Chairs of minimum 12 mm diameter bars should be used.

Minimum diameter of dowel bars should be 12 mm

Lap slices should not be used for bar larger than 36 mm.

In steel reinforcement binding wire required is 8 kg per MT.

Lapping is not allowed for the bars having diameters more than 36 mm.

Minimum number of bars for a square column are 4 and for circular column are 6.

Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S.

Weight of rod per meter length = d2/162 where d is the diameter in mm

All reinforcement shall be free from mill scales, loose rust & coats of paints, oil or any other substances.

Main bars in the slabs shall not be less than 8 mm (HYSD) or 10 mm (Plain bars) and the distributors not less than 8 mm and not more than 1/8 of slab thickness.


In case of spacing of bars
Provide the diameter of the bar, if the diameter of the bar are equal.
Provide the diameter of the larger bar, if the diameter are unequal.
5mm more than the nominal maximum size of the coarse aggregate.

Things Site Engineers Must Know

Check out the Unit Weights and Conversion which will be required on construction site here

We at are thankful to Er Vikrant for submitting this construction site check list which is of great use to all civil engineers.

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  • Nasir Khan July 3, 2012 at 2:55 pm

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  • Faruku Usman August 27, 2012 at 3:16 pm

    How bending moment and shear forces can resist structural design.

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  • shanthibhushan March 1, 2013 at 12:37 pm

    i have question for u guys. why do we use only round steel bar why can n’t we use rectangular bar ????

    • BISHNU ADHIKARI March 19, 2013 at 10:28 am

      due to better workability

  • zavid March 3, 2013 at 1:39 am

    i am grateful to you

  • BISHNU ADHIKARI March 19, 2013 at 10:24 am

    why we use main bar in shorter span & distributor bar in longer span

  • BISHNU ADHIKARI March 19, 2013 at 10:30 am

    Really very fabulous site

  • Mozamil April 17, 2013 at 7:44 am

    why for slab the minimum diameter bar are 10? i think it shall be larger dia.

    • Michael Angelo Malicsi Retener September 13, 2013 at 10:29 pm

      that is why you have the word minimum. it can be larger than 10mm but cannot be smaller. but it still depends on the load it is designed to carry

  • karwan May 23, 2013 at 4:03 pm

    At foundation.what is different between steel bars short direction and steel bars long direction.?

  • bashir ahmad May 30, 2013 at 3:06 am

    how to find area of steel in rectangular R CC beam

  • mohammed shahnawaz June 30, 2013 at 1:03 am

    what r the types of reinforcement used in india, its composition

  • Ashique July 7, 2013 at 2:40 am

    One of our engineer is designed a foundation Size of 180x180x50cm and the steels are 13 nos of 14mm dia bars/mtr both ways at bottom and 13 nos of 12mm bars/mtr at top..
    actually i need to know the maximum numbers of bars in one meter.
    Note it is a cold store structure of height 9.00mtr.

  • Maxwell Fosu Buabeng August 6, 2013 at 2:38 am

    Am very much grateful to have this important information…pls forward more civil working details to my mail.yours sincerely

  • siddique September 5, 2013 at 5:13 am

    my name is siddiq.this site is very useful civil engineers

  • ravindra September 21, 2013 at 9:14 am

    how to calculate bbs of cloumn

  • amod September 23, 2013 at 7:53 am

    i want to simple calculation formula for changing the dia of bar

  • nash October 26, 2013 at 7:05 am

    hello,. can i ask how long is the minimum or maximum lap on stump and column?, thank you

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