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What are the Corrections Applied in Surveying?

For surveying, we need to have some prerequisite conditions. If these conditions are not met we can have a huge variation in result. Therefore we have to apply corrections to get the true result.

Ideal Conditions
1) A tape accurate to 0.00305m or 0.01 ft should be used.
2) Tension of the tape should be about 66.7N or 15 lb.
3) Temperature should be determined within 5.56°C or 10°F
4) The slope of the ground, should be within 2 percent

On ground these are nearly impossible to achieve and thus corrections need to be applied.

What is Orthometric Correction?

We know that earth flattens in the polar direction and this curvature of earth is responsible for the departure of horizontal line from a level surface. To counter this error, orthometric corrections is applied.

This departure in feet, Cf is calculated as