Currently, there are three common non-destructive testing of weld, namely radiographic inspection, ultrasonic testing and magnetic flaw detection test.
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In the design of butt weld strength, it is generally assumed that its strength is at least equivalent to the parent metal. To enhance proper welding operation, the gap between two metals to be welded should not be too small, otherwise the root would be inadequately fused during welding and the butt weld strength would be reduced. On the other hand, the gap should be not set too large because the weld metal would simply pass through it. The function of the gap between adjoining root faces is to increase the depth of penetration down to the root of the weld.
There are three types of fillet weld cross section profile, namely, flat, convex and concave. The convexity in convex fillet welds serve as reinforcement, which is believed to provide additional strength. However, care should be taken in not introducing excessive convexity to fillet welds.