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What is the reason of grouping several reinforcement bars in concrete structure?

For too much reinforcement to be incorporated in concrete structures, the reinforcement bars are sometimes groups because:

(i) It facilitates placing of fresh concrete with more space available;
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Why is acetylene gas cylinder for gas welding to be erected in upright position?

Acetylene gas is commonly used for gas welding because of its simplicity in production and transportation and its ability to achieve high temperature in combustion (e.g. around 5,000o F).

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In checking the quality of weld, what are the pros and cons of various non-destructive weld inspection methods i.e. ultrasonic test, radiographic inspection and magnetic particle flaw detection test?

Currently, there are three common non-destructive testing of weld, namely radiographic inspection, ultrasonic testing and magnetic flaw detection test.

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Why are residual stresses incurred in steel after welding?

Considerable residual stresses are induced in connecting steel members after the welding operation. The local temperature of steel where welding takes place is higher than the remaining parts of the connecting steel members.

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What is the function of gap between adjoining root faces in butt weld?

In the design of butt weld strength, it is generally assumed that its strength is at least equivalent to the parent metal. To enhance proper welding operation, the gap between two metals to be welded should not be too small, otherwise the root would be inadequately fused during welding and the butt weld strength would be reduced. On the other hand, the gap should be not set too large because the weld metal would simply pass through it. The function of the gap between adjoining root faces is to increase the depth of penetration down to the root of the weld.

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