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Why does square hollow section become more popular than circular hollow section in steelworks?

Circular hollow section was available for many years until in 1960s for the approval of square hollows section and rectangular hollow section.

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How can heating assist in rebending of steel reinforcement?

It is not uncommon that starter bars are bent up within the formwork as a measure of temporary protection. Later, after the concrete is placed and formwork is removed, the steel bar reinforcement would be pulled out and straightened.

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Is fatigue more serious in large-diameter reinforcing steel?

Indeed past research showed that large-diameter reinforcing steel appeared to be weaker under fatigue loading conditions. Therefore, in some standards the stress range for testing fatigue of steel bars are reduced for increasing bar size for the same reason.

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What is the purpose of conducting re-bend test of steel reinforcement?

In BS4449:1997 it species a re-bend test of steel reinforcement where
reinforcing steel is bent 45o at 100oC for an hour and then bent back by 23o.

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What is the purpose of conducting bend test of reinforcement?

It is not uncommon that steel reinforcement is bent prior to installation into concrete structure. However, upon bending process steel reinforcement may fracture owing to the following reasons:

(i) The ribs on steel bars serve as location of stress concentration which is a potential weak point for fracturing.
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