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Research Papers

Experimental Investigation In Developing Low Cost Concrete From Paper Industry Waste

ABSTRACT
Over 300 million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by chemical and agricultural process in India. These materials pose problems of disposal and health hazards. The wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which adversely affect the strength and other properties of building materials based on them. Out of several wastes being produced at present, the use of phosphogypsum, flurogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud, and mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the environment.

Paper making generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibers can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low- quality paper fibers are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and “stickies” (tape, plastic films, etc.) are also washed off the recycled fibers to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in view, investigations were undertaken to produce low cast concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge.

This project is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement via 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of Hypo Sludge.

Keywords: Hypo Sludge, Pozzolanic Property, supplementary cementitious materials.

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Cuore Concrete – Nano Silica

A long time used material in concrete is for the first time fully replaced by a nano material.It is well known in physics and chemistry that a well designed and developed nano material produces better and cheaper cost results than traditional materials, thanks to the stabilization and reinforcement of matter properties at this level: a thousand fold smaller than the older level: “micro” (0.000001 mt).

Micro silica has been one of the world’s most widely used products for concrete for over eighty years. Its properties allowed high compressive strength concretes; water and chemical resistant concretes, and they have been part of many concrete buildings that we see nowadays. Its disadvantage, though, has been its relatively high cost and contamination, which affects the environment and the operators’ health. As micro silica, as a powder, is thousand fold thinner than cigarette smoke. Operators must take special precautions to avoid inhaling micro silica and not to acquire silicosis, an irreversible disease.

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