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Research Papers

Save Environment With Green Construction

By
Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

NEW CEMENT
Portland cement, is made by a calcareous material, such as limestone or chalk, and from alumina and silica found as clay or shale. The process of manufacture of cement consists essentially of grinding the raw materials, mixing them intimately in certain proportions and burning in a large rotary kilin at a temperature of up to about 14500C. When the material sinters and partially fuses into balls known as clinker, the clinker is cooled and ground to a fine powder, with some gypsum added, and the resulting product is the commercial portland cement so widely used through out the world. The manufacturing of this cement release in the atmosphere 0.8 tonnes of CO2 in the production of one tonne of cement. When water is mixed with cement and aggregates in the production of concrete for use in the construction, each tonne of cement can absorb up to 0.4 tonnes of CO2 , but that still leaves an overall carbon footprint per tonne of 0.4 tonnes. In the year 2009 about 2000 million tonnes of CO2 was emitted in the atmosphere in the production of cement.

The above problems have been overcome from researches by Nikolas Vlasopoulos Chief Scientist and his colleagues at Imperial College, London, and they have set up a company of Novacem’s cement which is making cement from magnesium silicate that absorb more CO2 as it hardens. Valaspoulos responded that magnesium slicates are abundant world wide with 10,000 billion tonnes available. He is confident that material will be strong enough for use in buildings but acknowledge that getting licence to use it will take several years of testing.
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Economic Evaluation of BOT Projects

Economic Evaluation of proposed Barwah-Dhamnod Toll Road by Dr.(Mrs.)Vandana Tare (Professor, Deptt. of Civil Engg. S.G.S.I.T.S., Indore (M.P) and Er. Raj Mohammad Khan (M.E. (Civil) Transportation Engg., Indore (M.P).

ABSTRACT
Road Traffic has been growing with very rapid rate, hence the traffic intensity and volume on the road is high. The present road network is necessary to improve to accommodate the future traffic and to provide the good riding quality. The development of Infrastructure has been done by the public sector through the fund collected from taxes, but huge fund are required for modernization of road network. Due to decreasing financial resources, government is not in position to invest the funds in those developments. This has brought to focus the need of attracting private investment in road in India.

The Barwah-Dhamnod road is proposed on B.O.T. system, starts from Barwah on Indore-Khandwa Road SH-27 and passing through Mandleshwar and joining NH-3 at Dhamnod. The total length of the road is 63 Kms and road passes through the districts of Khargon and Dhar. The details of road section Barwah-Dhamnod Road under study were collected through road inventory survey. The Traffic volume survey & Willingness to pay survey were also conducted on this road. The analysis of traffic volume data was done by projection up to 15 years. The need for widening of road from single lane to two lane is justified as per the capacity of road. Based on the data collection to achieve the toll fixation rates & to estimate the concession period, a methodology is adopted which includes generation of different module. Each module calculates the required results.
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Mix Design With Superplasticizers

By
Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

INTRODUCTION
Superplasticizers belongs to a class of water reducer chemically different from the normal water reducers and capable of reducing water content by about 30%. The Superplasticizers are broadly classified into four groups: sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensate (SMF), sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate (SNF), modified lignosulphonate (MLS) and others including sulphonic acid ester, polyacrylates, polystryrene sulphonates, etc. The benefits obtained by Superplasticizers in the reduction of water in the concrete mixes are best illustrated by the following examples.
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Ductal- A Stronger Concrete

What is Ductal?
Few Years back in 2006; researchers at Iowa State University have developed a new type of concrete that is much stronger than conventional concrete. It can withstand pressures up to 595,000 pounds — more than the weight of seven semi trucks.

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What is Biocement?

It’s safe to say that without microbes, biotechnology would be an extremely limited science. Microbes are microscopic organisms such as fungi (which include yeasts), bacteria and viruses. They not only provide the foundation for much of the basic research involved in biotechnology, they help to create durable building materials and structures.

The early scientific study of microbes concentrated on their effects, such as causing disease. Eventually, scientists discovered microbes could be used for the study of processes which are common to all living organisms. An innovative alternative approach lies in the combined use of microorganisms, nutrients and biological processes naturally present in the subsurface soils to effectively improve their engineering properties. Considerable research on carbonate precipitation by bacteria has been performed using ureolytic bacteria. These bacteria are able to influence the precipitation of calcium carbonate by the production of an enzyme, urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5). Calcium carbonate precipitation occurs as a consequence of bacterial metabolic activity that raises the pH of the proximal environment.

Recently I discovered and improved few bacterial species which were able to precipitate calcite at higher rate and eventually this process lead to improved compressive strength, reduced permeability and low corrosion rate of reinforcement.
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