Economic Evaluation of BOT Projects

Economic Evaluation of proposed Barwah-Dhamnod Toll Road by Dr.(Mrs.)Vandana Tare (Professor, Deptt. of Civil Engg. S.G.S.I.T.S., Indore (M.P) and Er. Raj Mohammad Khan (M.E. (Civil) Transportation Engg., Indore (M.P).

Road Traffic has been growing with very rapid rate, hence the traffic intensity and volume on the road is high. The present road network is necessary to improve to accommodate the future traffic and to provide the good riding quality. The development of Infrastructure has been done by the public sector through the fund collected from taxes, but huge fund are required for modernization of road network. Due to decreasing financial resources, government is not in position to invest the funds in those developments. This has brought to focus the need of attracting private investment in road in India.

The Barwah-Dhamnod road is proposed on B.O.T. system, starts from Barwah on Indore-Khandwa Road SH-27 and passing through Mandleshwar and joining NH-3 at Dhamnod. The total length of the road is 63 Kms and road passes through the districts of Khargon and Dhar. The details of road section Barwah-Dhamnod Road under study were collected through road inventory survey. The Traffic volume survey & Willingness to pay survey were also conducted on this road. The analysis of traffic volume data was done by projection up to 15 years. The need for widening of road from single lane to two lane is justified as per the capacity of road. Based on the data collection to achieve the toll fixation rates & to estimate the concession period, a methodology is adopted which includes generation of different module. Each module calculates the required results.
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Mix Design With Superplasticizers

Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Superplasticizers belongs to a class of water reducer chemically different from the normal water reducers and capable of reducing water content by about 30%. The Superplasticizers are broadly classified into four groups: sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensate (SMF), sulphonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate (SNF), modified lignosulphonate (MLS) and others including sulphonic acid ester, polyacrylates, polystryrene sulphonates, etc. The benefits obtained by Superplasticizers in the reduction of water in the concrete mixes are best illustrated by the following examples.
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Ductal- A Stronger Concrete

What is Ductal?
Few Years back in 2006; researchers at Iowa State University have developed a new type of concrete that is much stronger than conventional concrete. It can withstand pressures up to 595,000 pounds — more than the weight of seven semi trucks.

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What is Biocement?

It’s safe to say that without microbes, biotechnology would be an extremely limited science. Microbes are microscopic organisms such as fungi (which include yeasts), bacteria and viruses. They not only provide the foundation for much of the basic research involved in biotechnology, they help to create durable building materials and structures.

The early scientific study of microbes concentrated on their effects, such as causing disease. Eventually, scientists discovered microbes could be used for the study of processes which are common to all living organisms. An innovative alternative approach lies in the combined use of microorganisms, nutrients and biological processes naturally present in the subsurface soils to effectively improve their engineering properties. Considerable research on carbonate precipitation by bacteria has been performed using ureolytic bacteria. These bacteria are able to influence the precipitation of calcium carbonate by the production of an enzyme, urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC Calcium carbonate precipitation occurs as a consequence of bacterial metabolic activity that raises the pH of the proximal environment.

Recently I discovered and improved few bacterial species which were able to precipitate calcite at higher rate and eventually this process lead to improved compressive strength, reduced permeability and low corrosion rate of reinforcement.
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Experimental Investigation In Developing Low Cost Concrete From Paper Industry Waste

Over 300 million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by chemical and agricultural process in India. These materials pose problems of disposal and health hazards. The wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which adversely affect the strength and other properties of building materials based on them. Out of several wastes being produced at present, the use of phosphogypsum, flurogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud, and mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the environment.

Paper making generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibers can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low- quality paper fibers are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and “stickies” (tape, plastic films, etc.) are also washed off the recycled fibers to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in view, investigations were undertaken to produce low cast concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge.

This project is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement via 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of Hypo Sludge.

Keywords: Hypo Sludge, Pozzolanic Property, supplementary cementitious materials.

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