Durability of Flyash Based Geopolymer Concrete

This paper by SOURADEEP GUPTA (National University of Singapore) is aimed at discussing properties of geopolymer concrete, how these differ from properties of ordinary Portland cement, durability properties of fly ash based geopolymer concrete and its advantage when used as a construction material as well. Also some focus has been made on relevant issues that need to be solved and research needs to make it a better construction material.

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What are Green Buildings?

Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

A green building is that building which is constructed at a well planed location with proper design and sustainable materials. Fitted and painted with eco friendly materials. The building should gives to its occupants healthy and comfortable environment in all climates. It remains cool in summer, warm in winter, inside fully protected from rain, gives natural pollution free air and light through doors, windows and ventilators without any artificial means. For particular requirements it has solar, wind power and eco friendly electrical, mechanical etc. devices.
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Testing of Concrete Blocks

Er. Kaushal Kishore ,
Materials Engineer, Roorkee

Concrete can be converted into precast masonry units such as Hollow and Solid normal and light weight concrete blocks of suitable size to be used for load and non-load bearing units for wallings. Use of such concrete blocks are more appropriate in region where soil bricks are costly, poor in strength and are not available. Depending upon the structural requirements of masonry unit, concrete mixes can be designed using ingredients available locally or if not found suitable then with in the most economical distance. The concrete mix used for normal hollow and solid blocks shall not be richer than one part by volume of cement to 6 parts by volume of combined room dry aggregates before mixing. Hollow concrete blocks for normal work used in masonry when reinforced is used shall not be leaner than 1 part cement to 8 parts room dry sand by volume. The mixes are designed with the available materials to give overall economy and the required properties of the products. The hollow load bearing concrete blocks of the standard size 400 x 200 x 200 mm will weight between 17 and 26 kg (1063 to 1625 kg/m3) when made with normal weight aggregates. Normal weight blocks are made with cement, sand, gravel, crushed stone and air-cooled slag. The grading for sand used in Hollow concrete block shall be as given below:
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Design of Substructure Bridge with Different Codes and Analysis the Data for Settlement and Bearing Capacity Manually and by Using Plaxiz 3D Program of Finite Elements

This paper discussed the design of substructure of bridge subjected to load of train with using two codes, the first code is AASHTO code and the second is the Chinese Code. This study focuses on the substructure of the bridge design and the design manually with the two codes.

By the design of the Bridge using the codes above, we found that Chinese Code is more safely that the number of reinforcement bars more in the pile cap and pile.

Settlement of the bridge also is calculated by using the data collected from the project site, the vertical ultimate bearing capacity of pile group and the dynamic action of the train loads, by this study it can be concluded all the above are safe values.

Another analysis by using the three-dimensional Plaxis program of finite elements and many parameters calculated, the value of the maximum vertical displacement was near from the calculated value which gives another checking for the design and maintain the safe conditions for the Bridge.

1. Introduction
Many of codes used in the world for design the bridges and many of countries have special codes for design depending on the specialty of that country and the nature, environmental conditions, effect of earth quakes etc. In the United States Bridge Engineers use AASHTO’s standard Specification for Highway Bridges and, in similar fashion or trends, German bridge engineer utilize the DIN standard and British use the BS 5400 code. In general, countries like German and United Kingdom which have developed and maintained major highway systems for a great many years possess their own national bridge standards. The AASHTO Standard Specification, however, have been accepted by many countries as the general code by which bridges should be designed.

In this paper, the design of a bridge by using two codes the AASHTO and Chinese codes. The AASHTO Code for design bridges named “American Association of State Highway and Transportation

In China there are many codes for design about 81 codes for design for all the majors in the civil engineering with serial numbers of standard, the code used for this study is (The Chinese National Standard (CNS, 2002)) [4], Building Foundation Design Code (GB50007-2002). The Chinese Codes for design bridges focusing on the rail-way design like:

– Fundamental Code for Design on Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.1-2005).
– Code for Design of Steel Structure of Railway Bridge (TB10002.2-2005).
– Code for Design on Reinforced and Pre-stressed Concrete Structure of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.3-2005).
– Code for Design on Concrete and Block Masonry Structure of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.4-2005).
– Code for Design on Subsoil and Foundation of Railway Bridge and Culvert (TB10002.5-2005).
– Standard for Constructional Quality Acceptance of Railway Bridge and Culvert Engineering

2. Research Significance
This paper is to make a comparison between two or more codes in different countries to show the differences and similarities and advantages and disadvantages also for checking the design by the analysis and find the suitability of using the structure according to the design.
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Eco Friendly And Sustainable Transportation

In this paper two aspects of eco-friendly transportation has been discussed. Transportation is a huge consumer of energy and resources and also a major source of environment pollution (basically air pollution). People tend to use motorized vehicle even for the short distances because of inconvenience and unsafe conditions for bicycling. This leads excessive use of fuel. Limiting the motorized transportation to a defined boundary is required to control the fuel usage and also to reduce site air and noise pollution. Green vehicles are very much energy efficient, pollution free and convenient mode for short distance travelling. But because of lack of facilities their use is not preferred. Eco-friendly transportation promotes use of such efficient vehicles by adequate provisions. Eco-friendly transportation is beneficial for the users as it keeps environment free of pollution and posses healthy living conditions. The use of green vehicle is one part of eco-friendly transportation, the other and most important aspect of sustainable transportation is the use of the waste materials such as fly ash, steel industry slag, paper industry waste in the construction of pavements, embankments of roads and rails etc. which are dangerous as far as the environmental pollution is concerned.

Key words:– Green vehicle, Eco-friendly or sustainable transportation, fly ash, Construction of pavements.
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