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Project Reports

Socio Economic Impact Of Failure Of Transmission Line Tower Foundations

A report by Christian Johnson and Thirugnanam

Transmission line towers are constructed for power evacuation purpose from generating stations to various load centers. Though they are considered to be the most stable and versatile semi-permanent structure, often they collapse due to failure of foundations, disrupting transfer of large blocks of power affecting the society to a larger extent. A brief review of literature on failure of transmission line tower foundations have been made and Case study involving data collection and visual inspection of transmission line tower foundation apart from diagnosis of transmission line tower stubs and laboratory experimentations have been presented. Based on the literature review and the case study undertaken as a part of the research, three predominant causes leading to failure of transmission line tower foundations have been discussed. Socio – economic impact of failure of transmission line tower foundations have been discussed. Remedial measures found through the research study for preventing failure of transmission line tower foundations have been briefly outlined.

Corrosion, Foundations, Failure, socio- economic, transmission line tower
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Bridge Deck Analysis By Finite Difference Method

A detailed analysis done by Gautam Chattopadhyay

Names and Symbols used:
Ardeck – area of the deck.
wdeck – width of deck.
span – span length of bridge.
izlong – Moment of inertia of each longitudinal girder about z axis (transverse axis)
iztrans – Moment of inertia of entire deck in transverse direction about longitudinal axis.
flexkl – Flexural rigidity in longitudinal direction.
flexkt – Flexural rigidity in transverse direction.
ngird – number of longitudinal girders.
tslong – Tosional rigidity in longitudinal direction.
tstrans – Torsional rigidity in transverse direction.
econc – modulus of elasticity of concrete.
gconc – shear modulus for concrete.
N (ndiv) – Number of divisions in either direction.

Bridge decks are normally comprised of a grillage system of longitudinal and transverse girders. Longitudinal girders are supported at two ends while the extreme edges in transverse direction remain free. Bridge decks need special methods of analysis when subjected to unsymmetrical loadings. Unsymmetrical loading occurs for the following reasons:
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Analysis and Design Of 2-D Tubular Frame Using USFOS Modeling

Analysis and Design Of 2-D Tubular Frame Using USFOS Modeling by
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
National University Of Singapore

USFOS is the analytical tool for predicting both the resistance of structures subject to accidental loads and the residual strength of damaged structures after such loads. It is based on finite element modeling. USFOS covers static collapse analysis, non-linear time series dynamic analysis as well as eigenvalue analysis of typically jackets, jack-ups, topsides and floaters. Primarily the purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of 2-D offshore frame and study the progressive collapse mechanism in these two frames due to different load combinations along X-axis and Y-axis. First the boundary conditions were fixed for the vertical members using USFOS modeling and they were tested for collapse under four different load combinations. Differences in behavior of two frames have been studied and different brace-chord sizes have been fixed. This type of analysis is useful to test if an offshore jacket with some specified size can stand the load coming on it from waves, wind or impact of ships. By utilizing the inherent redundancy found in most offshore structures the progressive collapse limit state can be used to design for accidental damage or extreme loads. Whereas in traditional elastic design redistribution of load is not normally considered. Collapse or plastic limit state design allows for local failure in yield or buckling and even partial collapse, provided the overall integrity of the structure is maintained. In short, plastic limit state design allows the designers to take advantage of any reserve capacity in the structure.
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Project on Partial Replacement of Cement with Marble Powder

Advance concrete technology can reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy sources thereby lessen the burden of pollutants on environment. We describes the feasibility of using the marble sludge dust in concrete production as partial replacement of cement.

Presented by Rahul ,Jamsheed, Shanil , Geo, and Jagdeesh, under the guidance of Miss; DIVYA RAJAN guidance towards the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering, of the university of Calicut during the year 2011.

Leaving the waste materials to the environment directly can cause environmental problem. Hence the reuse of waste material has been emphasized. Waste can be used to produce new products or can be used as admixtures so that natural resources are used more efficiently and the environment is protected from waste deposits. Marble stone industry generates both solid waste and stone slurry. Whereas solid waste results from the rejects at the mine sites or at the processing units, stone slurry is a semi liquid substance consisting of particles originating from the sawing and the polishing processes and water used to cool and lubricate the sawing and polishing machines. Stone slurry generated during processing corresponds to around 40% of the final product from stone industry. This is relevant because the stone industry presents an annual output of 68 million tonnes of processed products. Therefore the scientific and industrial community must commit towards more sustainable practices. There are several reuse and recycling solutions for this industrial by-product, both at an experimental phase and in practical applications. These industrial wastes are dumped in the nearby land and the natural fertility of the soil is spoiled. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the waste are analyzed.
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Economics of R.C.C. Water tank Resting over Firm Ground vis-a-vis Pre-stressed Concrete Water Tank Resting over Firm Ground


Prof A. R. Mundhada

Water tanks are used to store water and are designed as crack free structures, to eliminate any leakage. In this paper design of two types of circular water tank resting on ground is presented. Both reinforced concrete (RC) and prestressed concrete (PSC) alternatives are considered in the design and are compared considering the total cost of the tank. These water tank are subjected to the same type of capacity and dimensions. As an objective function with the properties of tank that are tank capacity, width &length etc.

A computer program has been developed for solving numerical examples using the Indian std. Indian Standard Code 456-2000, IS-3370-I,II,III,IV & IS 1343-1980. The paper gives idea for safe design with minimum cost of the tank and give the designer the relationship curve between design variable thus design of tank can be more economical ,reliable and simple. The paper helps in understanding the design philosophy for the safe and economical design of water tank.

Rigid based water tank, RCC water tank, Prestressed Concrete, design, details, minimum total cost, tank capacity
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