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A Study of Axle Overloadings On A Rural Road In Nigeria

By
S.S. KOLO, (Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria), Y.A.JIMOH (University of Ilorin, Nigeria) AND P. N.NDOKE(Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria)

Abstract
This paper presents the outcome of the axle load survey on a section of a rural trunk road in Nigeria in order to ascertain the contribution of overloaded goods vehicles to pavement failure. Seven day classified traffic and axle load survey was conducted for the determination of ADT, percentage heavy vehicle and the imposed axle load at respective axle position for the traversing vehicles on the Old Jos –Kaduna road, Kaduna state Nigeria. The proportion of the vehicle laden weight carried by each axle and the corresponding standard axle load (sal) was computed with the index model of power 4. The percentage and magnitude of overloaded axles were respectively determined as an indicative measure of the extent of structural damage to the pavement. The studied pavement was overstressed up to five times beyond the Nigeria standard axle load of 80kN, which was too high and hence constituting the hindsight to frequent structural damage to road pavements in Nigeria. It was recommended that the axle load control with weigh-in-motion weighing bridges to assure protection of the road from failure be instituted that will impact less disturbance to normal traffic flow on the arterial.

Keywords
Commercial Vehicle, Average Daily Traffic, Design life, Axle Load, Gross Weight and Gross Vehicle Weight
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What is LiDAR and Discuss it’s Importance and Possibilities

By
Rahul
Department Of Civil Engineering, AWH Engineering College, Calicut-8,Kerala

ABSTRACT
This seminar paper on LiDAR mapping provides an introduction to a maturing technology used to acquire land based Digital elevation Models (DEM), and an existing mature technology used to acquire marine (undersea) DEMs. This seminar also goes through the use of LIDAR in space programs. Common to both the land-based and marine based systems by the use of lasers, integrated into what are known as Light Detection And Ranging systems, or LiDAR. The seminar begins with an introduction to LiDAR, and follows-through with how the systems are used, a description of land and marine variants, and statements as to what accuracy is attainable. Data products driven by applications are outlined, and the ability of these products to be integrated into a GIS is addressed. In turn and integral to the theme of the paper, evidence is presented to support applications developments that will ultimately benefit the public at large. Where valid, comparisons of LiDAR to other mapping technologies are presented to give the reader an understanding of current traditional practices. In many cases the combination of Li-DAR with other technology creates a result that is unachievable with a single methodology. Finally, conclusions are presented for discussion purposes that draw on the experiences of LiDAR.

INTRODUCTION
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Production And Classification Of Locust Bean Pod Ash (LBPA) As A Pozzolan

by
Adama Andrew Yisa (Ministry of Works and Infrastructural Development, Minna, Niger state, Nigeria.)
and
Dr. Y.A. Jimoh (Department of Civil Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.)

ABSTRACT
Locust Bean Pod Ash (LBPA) was produced by burning Locust Bean Pods in an Incinerator under controlled temperature. The solid residue after the combustion process was sieved using a set IS standard sieves after which the sieved sample was analyzed chemically to determine its constituents. The results of particle size distribution and chemical analysis of Locust Bean Pod Ash revealed that the percentage mass retained on IS sieve 44 µm is 29.6 % while the sum total of the combination of the chemical compounds (Sio2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3) was 63.57%. These indicate that Locust Bean Pod Ash is pozzolanic in nature.

Keywords
Locust Bean Pod Ash (LBPA), Pozzolan, Chemical analysis, Particle size
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Indoor Environment Quality-Mold In Existing Buildings And During Construction

By
Navaid Ur Rehman,PMP,
M.Eng (Construction Management)
University of Alberta

ABSTRACT
This term paper is prepared as part of the graduate degree requirement. The report consists of two parts:
Part 1: Mold growth in existing buildings
Part 2: Mold during construction

In Part 1 four areas are discussed:
(1) What mold is, how and where it resides and the reason for mold growth (2) Mold health concerns (3) Investigation and evaluation of mold and (4) Mold control if it resides in indoor environments and what should the preventive measures be.

In Part 2 two main areas are discussed: (1) Mold free construction, preventing mold growth before construction and checks during and post construction (2) Toxic Mold Litigation and the number of mold claims have exploded in recent years in the US and Canada.

KEY WORDS
Mold, Health Concern, Risk Factor, Risk Control, Mold free Construction, Construction Claim, Moisture
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Effect of Static Loading on RC Beams with Large Openings and CFRP as Strengthening Tool

By
Preetpal Kaur Ragbir Singh, Assoc. Prof. Dr, Nasir Shafiq
University Technology Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar.31750,Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract
Design, construction and maintenance requirements of tall buildings and industrial complexes are very different from those applicable for normal building design and construction. For example, for conveying the services and other facilities such as water supply, electricity, air-conditioning and sewerage discharge; a complex network of system routing is provided, which usually align vertically and horizontally and spread throughout the floor area. This complex network is often obstructed by the structural components such as beams, columns and floors and requires to penetrate through such obstruction, which is called the structural penetrations. The size, location and configuration of structural penetration are derived from the type of services, magnitude and speed of facility to be provided. The most prevalent location, size and configuration of structural penetration are always an issue between structural engineers and service or facilities design engineers. This research focuses on the effects of static loading on reinforced concrete beams with openings. This research also studies the prospect of strengthening the beams by using external bonded CFRP in different combinations or arrangement to regain bending capacity that was lost due to the openings. The openings are circular, rectangular, square and elliptical shaped.

Keywords
CFRP Sheets, Large Opening, Static, RC Beam.
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