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Shall a layer of wearing course or additional thickness be designed on the surface of piers?

In the design of piers, consideration should be given to the effect of wearing action caused by passengers, other traffics and even sometimes vehicles. In maritime environment, the durability and integrity of concrete is detrimental to the servicing life of piers because it acts an essential barrier to chloride attack.

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Why are high and narrow beams not desirable in concrete piers?

Based on past experience in other countries (Carl A. Thoresen (1988)), high and narrow beams after several years of construction showed signs of serious deterioration at the bottom of the beams. However, the deterioration of pier slabs was not significant when compared with that of the deep beams.

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Why is shallow bedrock condition unfavorable for open berth piers?

The most severe load on piers generally is the horizontal load due to berthing of large vessels. Since the widths of open berth piers are relatively small so that they provides a short lever arm to counteract the moment induced by berthing loads. Moreover, the dead load of open berth piers are normally quite light and therefore the resisting moment provided by the dead load of pier structures may not be sufficient to counteract the moment generated by berthing loads.

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Why is it desirable to select fenders with low reaction force?

It is always in the interest of engineers to select fenders with high energy absorption with low reaction force. The reaction force is an important factor in the design of quay walls because sufficient savings could be resulted from low reaction force exerted by fenders.

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What is the difference between breasting dolphin and mooring dolphin?

A dolphin is an isolated marine structure for berthing and mooring of
vessels. It is not uncommon that the combination of dolphins with piers could drastically reduce the size of piers.

Dolphins are generally divided into two types, namely breasting dolphins and mooring dolphins. Breasting dolphins serves the following purposes:

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