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Marine Works

In case mud waves occur during reclamation, what are the possible solutions to rectify the situation?

(i) Option 1 – Complete Removal of All Disturbed Mud
To remove all disturbed mud once mud waves occur is the fastest way to treat the problem. After that, filling material is used for replacing the disturbed mud. However, this option is a rather expensive option because it involves dredging of all disturbed mud and replacement of large amount of fill.

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What is the purpose of formation of bunds in reclamation?

Reclamation works normally proceed behind the seawall to protect against typhoon attack. In case where soft marine mud is encountered during reclamation, bunds may be formed on planned alignment of road and drainage works and locations of early development to displace mud to other less important areas should mudwaves indeed occur.

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In dredged reclamation, what are the considerations in selecting between trailer suction hopper dredgers and grab dredgers?

Trailer suction hopper dredgers are vessels which remove material off the seabed through hydraulic suction by using pumps. During the dredging operation, a mixture of soil and water is transported through suction pipe to storage hoppers. Significant turbulence inside the hoppers keeps the dredged mixture in suspension and this should be minimized to enhance the material to settle swiftly prior to the process of overflowing.

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What are different approaches for reclamation in deep water region and shallow water region?

To illustrate the different approaches adopted for reclamation in deep water and shallow water region, the following example is used:

In deepwater region, consider the seabed level is –8.5mPD. After laying of geotextiles and 1.5m thick sand blanket, the top level of sand blanket is about –7mPD. Split barges are deployed for dumping public fill to –2.5mPD. Afterwards, end dipping of public fill by trucks will be carried out up to +2.5mPD which is the designed reclamation level. Between level –2.5mPD and +2.5mPD, it is too shallow for split barges to enter the water, thus the method of end dipping is used instead.

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What are the pros and cons of using timber fenders, plastic fenders and rubber fenders?

Timber fenders:
They are low in strength and are subject to rotting and marine borer attack. Moreover, they have low energy absorption capacity and the berthing reaction depends on the point of contact. The contact pressure between fender and vessels are high. They are considered to be environmentally unfriendly because they consume tropical hardwoods in their production.

Plastic fenders:
Their strength is similar to that of timber fenders but they have relatively high abrasive resistance. They are resistant to chemical and biological attack. Their energy absorption capacities are moderate and the berthing reactions are also dependent on the point of contact. The reaction is lower when compared with timber fenders for a given energy absorption. They are considered to be environmental friendly because they are manufactured from recycled material.

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