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# Hydraulics

Forces Due To Pipe Bends

The momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water leads to forces on the pipes
The force diagram in figure is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe.

Temperature Expansion Of Pipe

If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures, the stress, lb/in2 (MPa), due to a temperature change is

Pipe Stresses Perpendicular To The Longitudinal Axis

The internal or external pressures on the pipe walls cause the stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a pipe. Internal pressure creates a stress commonly called hoop tension

The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is

pD=2F

Water Hammer

Water hammer is a change in pressure, either above or below the normal pressure, caused by a variation of the flow rate in a pipe.

Orifice Discharge Into Diverging Conical Tubes

This type of tube can greatly increase the flow through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the orifice below atmospheric. The formula that follows for the pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 and points 1 and 2