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Weir is defined as a barrier over which the water flows in an open channel. The edge or surface over which the water flows is called the crest. The overflowing sheet of water is the nappe.
If the nappe discharges into the air, the weir has free discharge. If the discharge is partly under water, the weir is submerged or drowned.

Types of Weirs.

A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharp-crested weir.
All other weirs are classed as weirs not sharp crested. Sharp-crested weirs are classified according to the shape of the weir opening, such as rectangular weirs, triangular or V-notch weirs, trapezoidal weirs, and parabolic weirs. Weirs not sharp crested are classified according to the shape of their cross section, such as broad-crested weirs, triangular weirs, and trapezoidal weirs.

The channel leading up to a weir is the channel of approach. The mean velocity in this channel is the velocity of approach. The depth of water producing the discharge is the head.
Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means of meas- uring flowing water. In contrast, weirs not sharp crested are commonly incorporated into hydraulic structures as control or regulation devices, with measurement of flow as their secondary function.

hydrualics 10
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Hydraulic Jump

The abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flowing water is called hydraulic depth.Flow at the jump changes from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an accompanying loss of kinetic energy. The change in depth occurs over a finite distance, known as the length of jump. The upstream surface of the jump, known as the roller, is a turbulent mass of water.
The depth before a jump is the initial depth, and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth. The specific energy for the sequent depth is less than that for the initial depth because of the energy dissipation within the jump.

F=[ d22– d12]w/2

where d1 =depth before jump, ft (m)

d2 =depth after jump, ft (m)

w=unit weight of water, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)

Manning’s Equation For Open Channels

One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula:


R= hydraulic radius, ft (m)

V =mean velocity of flow, ft/s (m/s)

S= slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction, ft/linear ft (m/m), of channel

C =Chezy roughness coefficient

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Critical Depth of Open-Channel Flow

For a given value of specific energy, the critical depth gives the greatest discharge, or conversely, for a given discharge, the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth.

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Open Channel Flow

The flow in the pipe is said to be open channel if the pipe is only half full eg Free surface flow, or open-channel flow, includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.

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