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Manning’s Equation For Open Channels

One of the more popular of the numerous equations developed for determination of flow in an open channel is Manning’s variation of the Chezy formula:

V=C ?RS

where
R= hydraulic radius, ft (m)

V =mean velocity of flow, ft/s (m/s)

S= slope of energy grade line or loss of head due to friction, ft/linear ft (m/m), of channel

C =Chezy roughness coefficient

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Critical Depth of Open-Channel Flow

For a given value of specific energy, the critical depth gives the greatest discharge, or conversely, for a given discharge, the specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth.

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Open Channel Flow

The flow in the pipe is said to be open channel if the pipe is only half full eg Free surface flow, or open-channel flow, includes all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open to the atmosphere.

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Forces Due To Pipe Bends

The momentum change and the unbalanced internal pressure of the water leads to forces on the pipes
The force diagram in figure is a convenient method for finding the resultant force on a bend. The forces can be resolved into X and Y components to find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the pipe.
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Temperature Expansion Of Pipe

If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures, the stress, lb/in2 (MPa), due to a temperature change is
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