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# Hydraulics

Closed Box Trough And Overhang Aqueduct

An aqueduct is a structure carries canal water through it and crosses over a natural drainage river or nallah. An aqueduct is provided when canal bed level is higher than HFL of natural drainage.
In case of open through aqueduct the service road is discontinuous, and during rainy season for inspection of aqueduct site engineer has pass through submersible causeway to downstream side aqueduct. In this case cost of aqueduct and cost of the causeway and service road is to be borne by irrigation department. But during heavy flood the water flow over cause way and it can not be possible to inspect aqueduct for throughout length. Hence closed box aqueduct is proposed in place of existing open trough aqueduct.

Hydroelectric Power Generation

The electrical power obtained from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of water is called Hydroelectric power

PE=WZ

where
PE= potential energy

W =total weight of the water

Z =vertical distance water can fall

Power is the rate at which energy is produced or utilized:

Venturimeter Flow Computations

Flow through a venturimeter is given by

where
Q= flow rate, ft3/s (m3/s)

c =empirical discharge coefficient dependent on throat velocity and diameter

d1= diameter of main section, ft (m)

d2= diameter of throat, ft (m)

h1= pressure in main section, ft (m) of water

h2= pressure in throat section, ft (m) of water

Economical Sizing

ECONOMICAL SIZING OF DISTRIBUTION PIPING.

An equation for the most economical pipe diameter for a distribution system for water is

D=0.215*(fbQ3aS/aiHa)1/7

where

D= pipe diameter, ft (m)

f =Darcy–Weisbach friction factor

b =value of power, \$/hp per year (\$/kW per year)

Qa= average discharge, ft3/s (m3/s)

S =allowable unit stress in pipe, lb/in2 (MPa)

a= in-place cost of pipe, \$/lb (\$/kg)

i =yearly fixed charges for pipeline (expressed as a fraction of total capital cost)

Ha =average head on pipe, ft (m)

Flow From Wells

The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity well by using the Dupuit formula:

Q =[1.36K(H 2-h 2)]/log(D/d)

where
Q =flow, gal/day (liter/day)

K= hydraulic conductivity, ft/day (m/day), under

H= total depth of water from bottom of well to free-water surface before pumping, ft (m)

h= H minus drawdown, ft (m)

D= diameter of circle of influence, ft (m)

d =diameter of well, ft (m)

The steady flow, gal/day (liter/day), from an artesian well is given by

Q=[2.73Kt(H -h)]/log(D/d)

where
t = thickness of confined aquifer, ft (m).