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Should the same freeboard be maintained along a channel?

The freeboard is defined as the vertical distance from water surface to the top of channel bank. The selection of freeboard is dependent on the consequence should overflow out of channel bank occurs. Other than that,consideration should also be given to prevent waves, superelevation and fluctuations in water surface from overflowing the channel banks.

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What is the difference between on-seating and off-seating head in penstock?

A penstock is commonly used to control the flow and water level and for isolation of fluid. It mainly consists of a sliding door which is controlled by mechanical spindle moving through a hole in a frame built onto a structure. Penstock is the term used in UK while sluice gate is more commonly adopted outside UK. In the design of penstock, it is important to identify if it would take on-seating head or off-seating head.

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During the time of construction, cracks are likely to develop in small diameter concrete pipes. Why?

During the construction of new pavement, vibratory roller and heavy equipment are needed to compact the filling material and bituminous material. These heavy equipment could generate very high impact load with short duration on the concrete pipes.

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What is the importance of uniform support for precast concrete pipes?

Concrete pipes are designed to be uniformly supported along the length to carry vertical loads on its top. They are normally not intended to serve as a beam to carry loads in longitudinal direction under poor ground supports (i.e. high and low spots in bedding).

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Closed Box Trough And Overhang Aqueduct

An aqueduct is a structure carries canal water through it and crosses over a natural drainage river or nallah. An aqueduct is provided when canal bed level is higher than HFL of natural drainage.
In case of open through aqueduct the service road is discontinuous, and during rainy season for inspection of aqueduct site engineer has pass through submersible causeway to downstream side aqueduct. In this case cost of aqueduct and cost of the causeway and service road is to be borne by irrigation department. But during heavy flood the water flow over cause way and it can not be possible to inspect aqueduct for throughout length. Hence closed box aqueduct is proposed in place of existing open trough aqueduct.

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