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Highway Engineering

Transition (spiral) Curves

While taking a turn,the centifugal forces develop so a vehicle and its contents are immediately subjected to centrifugal forces. More is the speed of vehicle sharper is the curvature and thus the greater the influence on vehicles and drivers of the change from tangent to curve. When transition curves are not provided, drivers tend to create their own transition curves by moving laterally within their travel lane and sometimes the adjoining lane,which is risky not only for them but also for other road users.
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Highway Turning Lanes

The figure below shows how the highway turning lanes can be classified:
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Structural Numbers


The design of a flexible pavement or surface treatment expected to carry more than 50,000 repetitions of equivalent single 18-kip axle load (SAI) requires identification of a structural number SN that is used as a measure of the ability of the pavement to withstand anticipated axle loads. In the AASHTO design method, the structural number is defined by

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Highway Alignments

The Geometric design of a highway consist of horizontal alignment, vertical alignment and cross-sectional elements.
Horizontal alignment of a highway defines its location and orientation in plan view. Vertical alignment of a highway deals with its shape in profile.

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Highway Curves and Driver Safety

Highway curves are designed so that safety and comfort of the driver is maintained. There is a gradual change from a tangent to the start of a circular curve.
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