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Civil Engineering Information

Types of Estimates

Before undertaking a construction project it is necessary to know the expected cost and it is worked out by estimation. It is a computation of the quantities required and expenditure likely to be in the construction of the work.

The following are the different types of estimates:

1. Preliminary or Approximate Estimate:
This estimate is prepared to decide the financial aspects,policy and to give the idea of the cost of the proposal to the competent sanctioning authority.The calculation for approximate estimate is done in many ways. There are three types of approximate estimate
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It consists of various items of work in the form of a statement depicting quantities, description and rate per unit. It is used to define the quality and quantity of works to be carried out by main contractor for completing work. It is made in tabular format and is mainly used for inviting tender and supplied to contractors to fill up the rates. On receipt of tenders the rates are compared and decision is made regarding the work. It is prepared by quantity surveyors and building estimators to be handed over to contractor.

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Methods of Building Estimate

For earthwork in excavation, foundation which are symmetrical, brickwork in superstructure and plinth and concrete in foundation, two methods are there for estimation. These are-

1. Separate or Individual wall method and
2. Centre Line Method.

With these methods the lengths and widths of various items are mainly found out which helps in calculations.
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Common Abbreviation Used in Civil Engineering

The common abbreviation used in civil engineering are as follows:

A.A.S.H.T.O – American Association of State Highway Transport
A.B – Anchor Bolt Or Asbestos Board
A.C.I – American concrete institute.
A.R.E.A – American Railway Engineering Association.
A.S.C – Allowable stress of concrete.
A.S.T.M – American Society for Testing Materials
AC – Asphalt Concrete
AE – Assistant Engineer
APM – Assistant Project Manager
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Cutting Length of Stirrups

Sourav Dutta

We generally designate stirrups by its external dimensions. For example, a 250mm x 300mm stirrup has the 250mm and 300mm dimensions in perpendicular directions as shown in Fig 1.

Now a stirrup has 2 bends, types of which are shown in Fig 1 and Fig 4. Guideline of minimum bend length is as per Cl.3.8 of BIS2502 (shown in Fig 3).
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