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What is the difference of the following types of sheetpiles Z-type, U-type, flat web and Pan-type?

Z-type: The interlocks are situated as far away from the neutral axis as possible to facilitate good shear transfer and to enhance higher strength to weight ratio. This is the most common type of sheetpiles used in many countries.

Different type of sheetpiles

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Should wide or narrow sheetpiles be adopted in temporary work?

In general, wide and deep sheetpiles tend to be more cost-effective than narrow sections because they provide the same bending strength with a lower weight per square foot. As such, with increasing width of sheetpiles sections, fewer sheetpiles are required to cover a certain length of piling operation. Hence, the cost of installation can be reduced accordingly.

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What is the vibration mechanism caused by driving sheetpiles?

There are generally three main vibration mechanisms caused by driving
sheetpiles:

(a) When the sheetpiles are impacted by a hammer, a compressive wave would be formed and it travels down to the toe of sheetpiles. A large amount of energy would be used to cause downward movement of sheetpiles while some of the energy would be reflected back up to the sheetpiles. The remaining energy would be transmitted to soils which expand outward as a spherical wavefront called “P” waves.

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Why does square hollow section become more popular than circular hollow section in steelworks?

Circular hollow section was available for many years until in 1960s for the approval of square hollows section and rectangular hollow section.

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How can heating assist in rebending of steel reinforcement?

It is not uncommon that starter bars are bent up within the formwork as a measure of temporary protection. Later, after the concrete is placed and formwork is removed, the steel bar reinforcement would be pulled out and straightened.

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